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Hanover royal music archive

 Collection
Call Number: OSB MSS 146

Scope and Contents

The Hanover Royal Music Archive consists of printed and manuscript music, printed books about music, and related materials assembled by Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, and his successors. A significant component originated in England and concerns musical activity of several children of George III, circa 1770-1837, particularly Ernest Augustus, then Duke of Cumberland, and Princess Augusta, as well as Prince George of Cumberland, son of Ernest Augustus and later Georg V, King of Hanover. These materials moved to Hanover, apparently circa 1837 when Ernest Augustus succeeded William IV as King of Hanover. In Hanover, the collection was expanded by Ernest Augustus and Georg V, and much of the present content relates to music in the Hanoverian court through the mid-nineteenth century. While most materials date circa 1770-1870, a few items extend this span from the seventeenth through the mid-twentieth century.

Contents include manuscript and printed music used in performance; manuscript music books and bound collections; music in presentation bindings, inscribed or accompanied by letters from composers to Ernest Augustus, Georg V, or other royal family members; and books about music theory and pedagogy. Many genres of music are present, with concentrations in song, collections of national songs of Great Britain and Ireland, solo keyboard, chamber ensemble parts, sacred vocal music scores and parts, opera in vocal score, military band parts, and keyboard and ensemble music for marches, waltzes, and other social dance. Music of a wide range of both major and lesser-known composers active in England, Germany, and elsewhere in Europe during the eighteenth through mid-nineteenth century is present, including early printed editions of Johann Christian Bach, Haydn, Clementi, Mozart, Beethoven, Weber, Rossini, Berlioz, Johann Strauss, Sr., Mendelssohn. Many items bear marks of ownership, including presentation inscriptions, signatures, annotations, shelf mark labels, stamps, personalized and presentation bindings, and accompanying correspondence.

Among materials originating in England are manuscript music books of Princess Augusta and other royal family members, containing holograph music of Johann Christian Bach and Charles Frederick Horn, and an extensive archive of music performed by a private band employed by Ernest Augustus while Duke of Cumberland. Most material added in Hanover consists of presentation copies of music dedicated to Georg V; Hanoverian and Prussian military band music; literary papers, music drafts, and published music of Georg V; and music performed by the Hof- and Kirchenchor, including an archive of manuscript liturgical music. Later additions to the collection include music dedicated to Ernst August (1845-1923) and to members of the Prussian royal family. Additions dated circa 1860s-1910s are predominantly sacred music, indicating that the collection may have remained in use by church musicians during that period.

The archive documents music of the British and Hanoverian royal courts during the period of its accumulation, and is a resource for study of individual music manuscripts and rare publications. Materials originating in Great Britain are related to content dating from the same time period in the British Library’s Royal Music Library of Great Britain, and may be found to fill gaps in that larger collection. Several strengths of the Hanover collection are the smaller archives contained within it, particularly music of the Duke of Cumberland’s band, Hanover liturgical manuscripts, and music and literary papers of Georg V. Aspects of broad research value include: Johann Christian Bach and his circle; other individual composers and their published and unpublished work; music in the royal courts of Great Britain and Hanover; members of the British and Hanoverian royal families; composition, music education, and professional and amateur performance and employment of musicians in England and Germany; and manuscript copying, music printing, binding practices, and the music trade.

Notes on Folder Description

Folder titles for music are in a standardized format, consisting of the following as appropriate: truncated transcribed title; type of score and list of parts; holograph, manuscript, or print; and place and publisher. Contents not listed individually by Sotheby’s have been described briefly, usually as “music,” either manuscript or print. For all contents, full names and birth/death dates in headings have been supplied, if found in the Library of Congress Authority File or The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, or in materials in the collection. While these names are generally of composers or authors, some materials are listed under arrangers, editors, or compilers, in conformance with original folders or shelfmark labels.

Much of the manuscript material is copyist’s manuscript; some holograph manuscripts have been identified, and others are likely present. Most printed music is engraved, unless noted as typeset or lithograph. Full or partial uniform titles have been added to some folder titles, and some see/see also references have been supplied. Vocal and instrumental parts are listed as found, with no attempt to determine if sets are complete. The following abbreviations have been used in lists of parts:

v (voice), vv (voices) SATBarB (soprano, alto, tenor, baritone, bass)
kbd (keyboard), pf (piano), hpd (harpsichord)
picc (piccolo), fl (flute), ob (oboe), cl (clarinet), bn (bassoon), spt (serpent)
hn (horn), tpt (trumpet), trbn (trombone)
timp (timpani)
hp (harp)
vn (violin), va (viola), vc (violoncello), db (double bass)
b (bass)

Dates

  • 1651 - 1951
  • Majority of material found within 1770 - 1870

Creator

Language of Materials

Most materials are in English or German.

Conditions Governing Access

The materials are open for research.

Box 339 Restricted fragile material. Reference surrogates have been substituted in the main files. For further information consult the appropriate curator.

Conditions Governing Use

The Hanover Royal Music Archive is the physical property of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University. Literary rights, including copyright, belong to the authors or their legal heirs and assigns. For further information, consult the appropriate curator.

Immediate Source of Acquisition

Formerly owned by Ernst August, Prince of Hanover. Purchased from Sotheby's on the Hazel M. Osborn Fund and the James Marshall and Marie-Louise Osborn Collection Fund, 2008. For more information, consult the appropriate curator.

Arrangement

Organized into five series: I. General Music and Books About Music, 1714-1951. II. Music Collections, 1651-1868. III. Duke of Cumberland’s Band Archive, circa 1765-1834. IV. Hanover Liturgical Manuscripts, 1859-1867. V. Notes of Former Owners, [1980s?]-2005.

Extent

30.09 Linear Feet (902 boxes)

Catalog Record

A record for this collection is available in Orbis, the Yale University Library catalog

Persistent URL

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/fa/beinecke.hanover

Overview

The Hanover Royal Music Archive consists of printed and manuscript music, printed books about music, and related materials assembled by Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, and his successors. A significant component originated in England and concerns musical activity of several children of George III, circa 1770-1837, particularly Ernest Augustus, then Duke of Cumberland, and Princess Augusta, as well as Prince George of Cumberland, son of Ernest Augustus and later Georg V, King of Hanover. These materials moved to Hanover, apparently circa 1837 when Ernest Augustus succeeded William IV as King of Hanover. In Hanover, the collection was expanded by Ernest Augustus and Georg V, and much of the present content relates to music in the Hanoverian court through the mid-nineteenth century. While most materials date circa 1770-1870, a few items extend this span from the seventeenth through the mid-twentieth century.

Historical Notes

Hanover became an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire in 1692. In 1714, George I succeeded as both King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, establishing a personal union of the two titles that continued through the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Hanover became a kingdom in 1814, ruled by George III, King of Great Britain, and his successors George IV and William IV. When William IV was succeeded by Queen Victoria in 1837, the prohibition of female succession under Hanoverian law ended the personal union between Britain and Hanover, and Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, eighth of fifteen children of George III, became Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover. At the same time, Ernest Augustus’s son, Prince George of Cumberland, became Georg, Crown Prince of Hanover. The Crown Prince succeeded his father as Georg V, King of Hanover, in 1851.

Musicians working at the court of George III included Johann Christian Bach, who served as music master to Queen Charlotte, 1763-1782, Johann Samuel Schroeter, and Charles Frederick Horn, who served as music instructor for the princesses, 1789-1812. Both Ernest Augustus and Georg V had strong musical interests: Ernest Augustus employed a private band in England as the Duke of Cumberland, and Georg composed and wrote about music. Georg V apparently continued to compose after moving to Hanover, although injuries to his eyes had resulted in blindness by 1833.

Hanover was annexed by Prussia in 1866, as a consequence of the Austro-Prussian War. Georg V lived the remainder of his life in exile in Austria and France, without renouncing his Hanoverian title. His son, Ernst August (1845-1923), continued to claim succession rights, while holding the title of Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale. Ernest Augustus was deprived of this title after siding with Germany during Word War I. His son, Ernst August (1887-1953), Duke of Brunswick from 1913, was forced to abdicate in 1918.

Below is a chronology of key dates and a list of members of the British and Hanoverian royal families represented in the collection.
Chronology Dates following names refer to reigns or titles held.
Chronology
1692-1806
Braunschweig-Lüneburg, also called Hanover, an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire
1714
personal union between Great Britain and Hanover started
George I, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, 1714-1727
1727
George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, 1727-1760
1760
George III, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, 1760-1820
1806
Hanover annexed by France
1811
George IV, Prince Regent of Great Britain, 1811-1820
1814
Kingdom of Hanover established
1820
George IV, King of Great Britain and King of Hanover, 1820-1830
1830
William IV, King of Great Britain and King of Hanover, 1830-1837
1837
Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, 1837-1851
Victoria, Queen of Great Britain, 1837-1901
personal union between Great Britain and Hanover ended
1851
Georg V, King of Hanover, 1851-1866
1866
Austro-Prussian War; Hanover annexed by Prussia
Georg V exiled, 1866-1878
1878
Ernst August (1845-1923), Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, 1878-1913, and pretender to Hanoverian throne, 1878-
1913
Ernst August (1887-1953), Duke of Brunswick, 1913-1918
1918
Ernst August (1887-1953), abdicated as Duke of Brunswick
1919
Ernst August (1845-1923), deprived of titles in the United Kingdom
Royal Family of Great Britain Date spans in parentheses are birth/death dates; other date spans refer to reigns or titles held.

George III (1738–1820)
King of Great Britain, 1760-1820
Married: Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1744–1818)
Successor: George IV
Children:
-----George IV (1762-1830)
----------Prince of Wales, 1762-1820
----------Prince Regent, 1811-1820
----------King of Great Britain, 1820-1830
----------Married: Princess Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (1768-1821)
----------Successor: William IV
-----Frederick Augustus, Duke of York (1763-1827)
----------Married: Princess Frederica Charlotte of Prussia
-----William IV (1765-1837)
----------King of Great Britain, 1830-1837
----------Married: Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen (1792-1849)
----------Successor: Victoria
-----Charlotte Augusta Matilda, Princess Royal (1766-1828)
----------Queen of Württemberg, 1806-1816
----------Queen Dowager of Württemberg, 1816-1828
----------Married: Frederick I, King of Württemberg (1754-1816)
-----Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (1767-1820)
----------Married: Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (1786-1861)
-----Princess Augusta Sophia (1768-1840)
-----Princess Elizabeth (1770-1840)
----------Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg, 1820-1840
----------Married: Frederick VI, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg
-----Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover (1771-1851)
----------Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, 1799-1837
----------King of Hanover, 1827-1851
----------Married: Friederike Caroline Sophia Alexandrina of Solms-Braunfels (1778–1841)
-----Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex (1773-1843)
----------Married: Lady Augusta Murray (1761-1830)
----------Married: Lady Cecilia Gore (1793-1873)
-----Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge (1774-1850)
----------Married: Princess Augusta Wilhelmina Louisa of Hesse-Cassel (1797-1889)
----------Heir: Prince George, Duke of Cambridge (1819-1904)
-----Princess Mary (1776-1857)
----------Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh, 1816-1857
----------Married: Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh (1776-1834)
-----Princess Sophia (1777-1848)
-----Prince Octavius (1779-1783)
-----Prince Alfred (1780-1782)
-----Princess Amelia (1783-1810)
Royal Family of Hanover George I, King of Great Britain, 1714-1727, and Elector of Hanover, 1698-1727

George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, 1727-1760

George III, King of Great Britain and Hanover, 1760-1820 (see above)

George IV, King of Great Britain and Hanover, 1820-1830 (see above)

William IV, King of Great Britain and Hanover, 1830-1837 (see above)

Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, 1837-1851 (see above)

Georg V (1819-1878)
Prince George of Cumberland, 1819-1837
Crown Prince of Hanover, 1837-1851
King of Hanover, 1851-1866
Exiled, 1866-1878
Married: Princess Marie Alexandrina of Saxe-Altenburg (1818–1878)
Children:
-----Ernst August (1845-1923) (see below)
-----Princess Frederica (1848-1926)
----------Baroness von Pawel-Rammingen, 1880-1926
----------Married: Baron Alfons von Pawel-Rammingen
-----Princess Marie (1849-1904)

Ernst August (1845-1923)
-----Crown Prince of Hanover, 1851-1866
-----pretender to Hanoverian throne, 1878-
-----Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, 1878-1919
-----Married: Princess Thyra of Denmark

Ernst August (1887-1953)
-----Duke of Brunswick, 1913-1918
-----Married: Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia

Ernst August (1914-1987)
-----Married: Ortrud of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
-----Married: Monika of Solms-Laubach

Ernst August (1954-)

Ernst August (1983-)

Processing Information

This preliminary finding aid is largely based on a collection-level description and a partial list of contents provided by Sotheby’s prior to purchase by the Beinecke Library. Information in item-level descriptions from the Sotheby’s list, which generally covered materials originating in Great Britain, has been retained in folder titles in a standardized format. Brief descriptions have been added for contents not listed individually by Sotheby’s. Description of features such as marks of ownership, manuscript annotations, accompanying material, and partial contents of bound collections, has been retained in folder notes when noted by Sotheby’s. Additional similar information may be found through further examination of the collection.

Some materials were accompanied by notes in German made by a recent former owner or researcher. Most notes were written on notecards or envelopes, which have been retained in a separate series. Additional notes were written directly on some items, and some items bear adhesive residue indicating that notecards were formerly affixed to them. Other evidence of recent use includes at least one instance of accompanying correspondence dating from the 1950s, and undated recent transcriptions of music accompanying some materials in Series III, Duke of Cumberland’s Band Archive.

Creator

Title
Guide to the Hanover Royal Music Archive
Author
by Karen Spicher
Date
2009 August
Language of description
Finding aid written in English.

Revision Statements

  • 2019-09-17: Expanded folder spans for expanded box spans
  • 2016-04: [Revision description not specified]
  • 2010-02-10: Transformed with yale.addEadidUrl.xsl. Adds @url with handle for finding aid. Overwrites @url if already present.
  • 2009-08-06: Transformed with brbl.subseriesStrip.xsl. Strips @level='subseries' from first and third series.

Repository Details

Part of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library Repository

Contact:
P. O. Box 208330
New Haven CT 06520-8330 US
(203) 432-2977