Donald Ogden Stewart and Ella Winter papers
Scope and Contents
Stewart's work as a humorist, playwright, and screenwriter is documented in his correspondence, drafts, and printed versions of his writings, which trace his creative process as well as the production of his work on stage and in film. For example Stewart's play The Kidders is traced from a typescript draft to photographs of its production at the Arts Theatre Club and various reviews. Letters between Stewart and directors, such as Leo Mittler and Samuel Wanamaker, in addition to letters filed under the title of publications and productions in the Correspondence series, also provide a window into Stewart's writing career.
Ella Winter's writing process is evident in the various research files, drafts, and printed material in the Papers. Winter's work as a journalist and editor are captured in the printed versions of a number of newspapers, including The Carmelite and The Pacific Weekly, both of which Winter edited. Winter's travels for book projects in Russia and China are traced in her research files, drafts of articles, and correspondence. For example, the Writings series includes a file containing notes, drafts, photographs, and correspondence relating to Winter's travels in China and an abandoned book project. While there are few documents pertaining to Winter's translation work, there is some correspondence between Winter and Havelock Ellis, who provided the introduction to her translation of Diary and Letters of Otto Braun.
The Papers document Donald Ogden Stewart and Ella Winter's political activism. Several documents reflect Stewart's commitment to liberal causes; for example his correspondence and a file on "Hollywood Anti-Nazi League" relate to his role as president of the association. Ella Winter's political advocacy is documented in various drafts, printed versions, and correspondence. Winter's files on "Labor Strikes" and "Migratory Labor Camp reports" in addition to her correspondence with Carol Decker and John Steinbeck relate to her work on behalf of migrant workers.
The Papers also record Stewart and Winter's persecution as a result of their political activities, and in particular, their communist sympathies and affiliations. For example, Winter's correspondence file "Reds" pertains to an FBI investigation of Winter and Lincoln Steffens during which an investigator, Charles Baczsy, posed as a neighbor and friend. The Papers also reflect Stewart's ordeal of being blacklisted from Hollywood. For example the Writings series contains drafts and reviews for Escapade, a Hollywood production for which Stewart was forced to write under a pseudonym. Stewart also reflects about being blacklisted in his autobiography By a Stroke of Luck! (drafts and related material for which are also located in the Writings series).
Stewart and Winter's circle of friends included a number of prominent writers, artists, directors, and actors, as their correspondence and personal papers illustrate. For example, the Correspondence Series includes letters reflecting Stewart's connection with the Algonquin Round Table (various letters relate to Dorothy Parker); American expatriates in 1920s France (correspondents include Ernest Hemingway, Gerald and Sara Murphy, and others); and Hollywood in the 1930s and 1940s (correspondents include Samuel Wanamaker). Winter and Lincoln Steffen's circle also included a number of friends involved in arts and politics. As her correspondence indicates, Winter maintained friendships with sculptor Jo Davidson and his wife Yvonne, authors Charles Erskine Scott Wood and Sara Bard Field, poet Robinson Jeffers and his wife Una, and poet Marie de L. Welch. Photographs in the Personal Papers series also capture these relationships. Combined these documents reflect the culturally rich communities in which Stewart and Winter were immersed.
Stewart and Winter's personal lives, including their education, marriage, previous relationships, and family life, are also documented in the Papers. For example, the Correspondence Series includes letters between Stewart and Beatrice Ames and between Winter and Lincoln Steffens as well as between Stewart, Winter, and their children, parents, and siblings. The Personal Papers and Financial Papers series are also a window into Stewart and Winter's early lives, including, Donald Ogden Stewart's education at Yale University and Ella Winter's education at the London School of Economics. Diaries, day planners, and other documents provide a glimpse into their daily lives, and a number of photographs offer a sense of Stewart and Winter's milieu.
Conditions Governing Access
Conditions Governing Use
Immediate Source of Acquisition
84.21 Linear Feet (87 boxes)
Language of Materials
A record for this collection is available in Orbis, the Yale University Library catalog
Donald Ogden Stewart (1894-1980)
In 1920 Stewart devoted himself to becoming an author and moved to New York where he reconnected with Fitzgerald. Fitzgerald introduced Stewart to Edmund Wilson, and by extension, members of the Round Table, a group of writers who met at the Algonquin Hotel (most famously including Dorothy Parker and Robert Benchley). Like many of the “Round Table” authors, Stewart wrote for Vanity Fair as well as Smart Set, Bookman, and Harper's Bazaar. Stewart's first book, A Parody Outline of History (1921), is a collection of his pieces from the Bookman.
In 1922 Stewart traveled to Europe with his mother, first visiting Paris and then going to Vienna and Budapest. Stewart began work on Aunt Polly's Story of Mankind (1923) in Europe and completed the book while at the MacDowell Colony in New Hampshire. Stewart continued to visit Europe in the 1920s where his circle of friends included Philip and Ellen Barry, F. Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, John Dos Passos, Archibald MacLeish, Gerald and Sara Murphy, and Gilbert Seldes. This circle of friends inspired Stewart, who wrote Mr. and Mrs. Haddock Abroad (1924) with their encouragement, over a month-long period.
While in Paris in 1925 Stewart met Beatrice Ames, and the two married on July 24, 1926 in Montecito, California. The couple honeymooned in Europe, which Stewart subsidized by writing for the Chicago Tribune, and then moved to the U.S. where they lived in Hollywood and then New York City. During this period Stewart wrote for the New Yorker and became involved in acting. Stewart appeared in Philip Barry's play Holiday and performed in the movie Not So Dumb. These experiences compelled Stewart to write and act in his first play Rebound (1930).
In 1932 Stewart moved to Hollywood with his family (which now included sons Ames Ogden and Donald Ogden, Junior) in order to pursue a career as a screenwriter. Stewart had already written scripts for Laughter (1930) and Tarnished Lady (1931). With the exception of his original screenplays Tarnished Lady (1931) and Night of Nights (1939), Stewart's work as a screenwriter largely involved adapting plays or working with a team of other writers. Stewart was nominated for an Academy Award for best screenplay for Laughter (1930-31) and won best screenplay for his adaptation of Philip Barry's play The Philadelphia Story (1940).
Stewart served as president of the Hollywood Anti-Nazi League, president of the League of American Writers, and a member of the board of the Screen Writer's Guild. Stewart met his second wife, author Ella Winter, at a political rally and the two were married on March 4, 1939 (Stewart and Beatrice Ames had divorced in 1938). Stewart and Winter lived at Frazzle Top Farm (New York), New York City, and California. While living at Frazzle Top Farm Stewart focused on writing plays, but was pulled back to Hollywood to work on Keepers of the Flame (1942). In 1950 Stewart was blacklisted for his political activities and in 1951 he and Winter moved to London. While Stewart's career as a screenwriter was effectively curtailed he continued to write plays, including The Kidders (1957), and wrote screenplays, such as Escapade (1955), using his father's name (Gilbert Holland) as a pseudonym. Stewart's last book was his autobiography By a Stroke of Luck! (1975).
Stewart died on August 2, 1980 of complications following a heart attack.
Ella Winter (1898-1980)
Winter graduated from the University of London with Honours in Modern Languages (1914) and from the London School of Economics, B. Sc. (Econ), with First Class Honours in Public Administration (1919). While a student Winter worked as a research assistant and secretary for Professor Felix Frankfurter, a position that involved her in the Paris Peace Conference in 1918. Winter returned to London where she finished her studies, taught at the London School of Economics, worked for the Committee on Nationalization, and was an assistant to Henry F. Grady. Between 1920 and 1923 Winter was a member of the Foreign Affairs Committee of Parliamentary Labor Party and managed H.G. Wells' campaign for Parliament. The Institute of Industrial Research awarded Winter a research fellowship at Cambridge University's Psychology Laboratory. During this period Winter also translated Diary and Letters of Otto Braun (1924) and Mentality of Apes by Wolfgang Köhler (1926) from German into English.
While in Paris in 1918 Winter had met and fallen in love with American journalist Lincoln Steffens, who was thirty-two years her senior. The couple reunited in 1923 and moved to France and then Italy. While living on the continent their circle of acquaintances included Jo and Yvonne Davidson, Ernest Hemingway, Louise and Billy Bullitt, Charles Erskine Scott Wood and Sara Bard Field. Winter, who was six months pregnant, and Steffens married in Paris to avoid social stigma in the U.S. (reacting against what Steffens considered restraining social convention they later divorced but continued to live happily together). Their son Pete Stanley was born in San Remo, Italy in 1924.
In 1927 Winter and Steffens moved to the U.S. and settled in Carmel, California (Winter became a naturalized American citizen in 1929). While living in Carmel Winter and Steffens befriended a number of artists, journalists, and political figures, including Robinson and Una Jeffers, John Steinbeck, Marie de L. Welch, and Samuel Darcy.
Having already written articles for the Manchester Guardian, Winter pursued a career in journalism, first editing The Carmelite (1928-1930), and then The Pacific Weekly (1934-1936), and Your World (1946), and contributing articles to Argosy, Collier's, Hollywood Tribune, Ladies' Home Journal, Liberty, London Daily News, The Nation, New Republic, New York Times, Scribner's Magazine, and U.S. Week.
Winter also worked as a foreign correspondent. She made several trips to the Soviet Union, first in 1930-1931, which resulted in her book Red Virtue (1933), and then during World War II, at which time Winter was a correspondent for the New York Post, an experience that led to her book I Saw the Russian People (1945).
As a journalist Winter visited post-war Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia (where she interviewed Tito for Alliance) in 1947. In 1958, with the Chinese National Women's Federation as hosts, Winter visited China for two months with the intention of writing another book.
Politically astute and engaged, Winter often addressed social injustice in her writings, for example, in Red Virtue she considers the status of women in Russia, and in other articles she argued for the rights of migrant workers in California.
Following the death of Lincoln Steffens, Winter published a number of books celebrating his life and work, including Lincoln Steffens Speaking (1936), Letters of Lincoln Steffens (1938), and The World of Lincoln Steffens (1962).
Winter married Donald Ogden Stewart on March 4, 1939 and the two lived in California, Frazzle Top Farm in upstate New York, New York City, and London, where they settled in Hampstead. Winter published her autobiography, And Not to Yield, in 1963.
She died on August 5, 1980, two days following Donald Ogden Stewart's death.
The finding aid for this collection is compiled from individual preliminary lists for each acquisition that were created at or around the time of receipt by the library. The preliminary lists were migrated to comply with current archival descriptive standards and merged into a single file in 2007-2008. As part of the migration, modifications were made to the formatting of individual lists; however, the content of the lists was neither modified nor verified. In 2011 further organization and description were carried out and the various acquisitions associated with the collection were physically merged.
As a rule, descriptive information found in the Collection Contents section is drawn in large part from information supplied with the collection and from an initial survey of the contents. A number of the folder titles appearing in the contents list below are often based on those provided by the creator or previous custodian. Titles have not been verified against the contents of the folders in all cases. Otherwise, folder titles are supplied by staff during initial processing.
This collection includes materials previously identified by the following call numbers: Uncat ZA MS 562, Uncat MSS 503, and Za Stewart.
This finding aid may be updated periodically to account for new acquisitions to the collection and/or revisions in arrangement and description.
- Algonquin Round Table
- Authors, American -- 20th Century -- Archives
- Blacklisting of authors -- United States
- Carmel (Calif.) -- Newspapers
- China -- Description and travel
- Darcy, Samuel, 1905-
- Davidson, Jo, 1883-1952
- Davidson, Yvonne, -1934
- Europe -- Description and travel
- Field, Sara Bard, 1882-1974
- Fitzgerald, F. Scott (Francis Scott), 1896-1940
- Foreign correspondents
- Foreign correspondents -- United States
- Harcourt Brace & Company
- Hemingway, Ernest, 1899-1961
- Hollywood Anti-Nazi League
- Jeffers, Robinson, 1887-1962
- Journalists -- United States
- Motion picture industry -- United States
- Political activists -- United States
- Russia -- Description and travel
- Screenwriters -- United States
- Social justice -- United States
- Steffens, Lincoln, 1866-1936
- Stewart, Donald Ogden, 1894-1980
- Welch, Marie de L. (Marie de Laveaga), 1905-1974
- Wells, H. G. (Herbert George), 1866-1946
- Winter, Ella, 1898-1980
- Wood, Charles Erskine Scott, 1852-1944
- Guide to the Donald Ogden Stewart and Ella Winter Papers
- by Beinecke staff, Brooke McManus
- 2007-05-16. Revised: February 2023.
- Description rules
- Describing Archives: A Content Standard
- Language of description note
- Finding aid written in English.
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