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Fedor Stepun papers

 Collection
Call Number: GEN MSS 172

Scope and Contents

The Fedor A. Stepun Papers consist of the correspondence, manuscripts, photographs and personal papers in Stepun's possession at the time of his death in 1965. Due to the destruction of his Dresden home in 1945, there is only a small amount of material from the years prior to that. Presumably those early papers which survive were either in Stepun's possession in Rottach-am-Tegernsee when his Dresden home was bombed, or were in the possession of third parties who subsequently returned them to him.

The Beinecke Library acquired Stepun's papers from Margarita Stepun, the writer's sister, after Stepun's death in 1965. Yale's Curator of Slavic collections, Aleksis Rannit, had probably arranged for the acquisition of Stepun's papers with Stepun and his heirs on his visit to Munich in 1964. Stepun and his heirs provided a rough arrangement of the papers and compiled preliminary lists of correspondents and manuscripts. These are filed in the collection, with Stepun's personal papers in Series IV (Box 68, folders 2102-2103). Lists of books from Stepun's library, which also was acquired by Yale, can be found among the papers of Aleksis Rannit in the Beinecke Library (Uncat MS Vault 183). The books were not retained as part of the papers and have not been traced.

The Papers are organized into six series: I. Correspondence; II. Writings; III. Organizational Affiliations; IV. Personal Papers; V. Writings of Others; VI. Photographs and Artwork. Oversize materials are described in their appropriate intellectual order in the main series listings, but housed separately. The section of Restricted Fragile Papers contains material for which preservation photocopies have been supplied in the main series, as reference copies. The Papers are chiefly in Russian and German; a few items are in other such other languages as French, English, Italian, and Ukrainian.

Series I, Correspondence , (boxes 1-41) is organized into three subseries: General Files, Other Correspondence, and Letterbooks. The General Files contain Stepun's vast and varied correspondence from 1944 to 1965, along with individual letters from earlier dates. Stepun's outgoing correspondence appears to have been preserved fairly systematically from about 1961; only individual outgoing letters survive from earlier dates. Correspondents who are distinguished either by the volume of letters exchanged with Stepun or by virtue of their own achievements are foldered and listed separately; other correspondents are filed in general alphabetic files. (A list of the correspondents in the general files can be found in the Appendix ). Incoming and outgoing letters are filed together in chronological order under the name of the correspondent. If the correspondent is an organization, the names of its representatives have often been included in a note.

Stepun's principal correspondents include many famous Russian émigré writers, such as Nikolai Arsen'ev, Ivan Bunin, Roman Gul', IUrii Ivask, Michael Karpovich, Alexander Kerensky, Victor Leontovitsch, S. P. Mel'gunov, Nikolai Poltoratzky, Leonid Rzhevskii, Gleb Struve, Dmitrij Tschizewskij, Vladimir Veidle, M. V. Vishniak, Boris Zaitsev, Lev Zander, Vasilii Zen'kovskii and Nikolai Zernov. Lesser amounts of correspondence can be found for many other famous Russian writers, painters, political thinkers, philosophers, and personalities of his day, from Georgii Adamovich and Mark Aldanov to Boris Pasternak and Leonid Zurov, from Sergei Ivanov to Sergei Shcherbatov, from Nikolai Losskii and Georgii Florovskii to Nikolai Ul'ianov, and from Nina Berberova to Vladimir Varshavskii. As an émigré writer, Stepun was also in constant contact with the editors and administrators of Russian-language publishing houses and journals, such as Donald Lowrie and Ivan Morozov of YMCA-Press, Sergei Mel'gunov of Vozrozhdenie, and S. Vodov of La pensée russe. His years at Dresden also brought Stepun close to many significant German thinkers, with whom and with whose families he continued to correspond: Ernst Benz, Hans-Georg and Frida Gadamer, Bernt and Gertrude Heiseler, Richard and Alice Kroner, Johannes Kühn, Zenta Maurina, Paul and Irmengard Mildner, Carl Neumann, Ernst Saemisch and family, Otto Taube, and Paul and Hanna Tillich. Again, Stepun corresponded on a less frequent basis with countless other figures of all statures on the German intellectual scene.

As a German writer, Stepun was in contact with the editors of Hochland, the Muth family, Hans Paeschke of Merkur, and a multitude of publishers and editors across Germany and Switzerland. As a popular lecturer, Stepun conducted perhaps his most voluminous correspondence with educational institutions, cultural clubs, government agencies, and church groups who would invite him to speak or assist in the organization of his lectures. As a German Slavist, Stepun corresponded with many of the most prominent representatives of this field in his day, such as Fairy von Lilienfeld, Arthur Luther, Ludolf Müller and Heinrich Stammler. As a teacher he corresponded with students who were destined to leave a significant mark in their fields: Edith Klum, Richard McFalls, Vera Piroschkowa, and Alexander Steininger. Finally, as a devout Christian, Stepun corresponded with many outstanding churchmen and Christian organizations of his day, from Archbishop John (Shakhovskoi) to the World Council of Churches.

A peculiarity of Stepun's correspondence is that he and his wife Natal'ia Nikolaevna befriended entire households; as a result, he often corresponded with his friends' wives and even children, sometimes more than with his friends themselves. In fact, Stepun's most voluminous correspondence was with relatively obscure families he knew from Dresden, such as the Bestes, the Bieners, the Langes, the Vietinghoffs, and others. His correspondence files for families of his former colleagues and friends, including Vera Bunina, Tat'iana and Viktor Frank, Dmitrii and Lidiia Ivanov, Anna Medtner, Evgeniia Rapp, Ol'ga Shor, are also quite extensive.

The section entitled Other Correspondence contains congratulatory telegrams and cards on the occasion of Stepun's birthdays and on the death of his wife. (Any identifiable letters of any substance have been filed in the main body of correspondence under the sender's name; all other telegrams and cards, whether identified or not, remain filed here together, as Stepun himself preserved them.) There are also several folders of unidentified correspondence. The final subseries, Letterbooks, consists of several notebooks in which Stepun kept a partial record of his correspondence in chronological order.

Series II, Writings (Boxes 42-65), contains manuscript drafts, typescripts, and related publication materials for a number of Stepun's major books and shorter writings. As with the correspondence, post-war materials predominate. The series is organized into seven subseries: Books, Shorter Writings, Untitled Works, Research Notes, Notebooks, Reviews, and Course Lectures. Although only fragments remain from Stepun's pre-war writings, all of Stepun's post-war books are represented in the Books subseries. Stepun recycled writings and materials, reworking and republishing, sometimes under new titles, works that had been published numerous times before. Thus, many of his books were essentially collections of shorter writings that had been published previously, and which were now revised, gathered and united under a single title. In addition, an essentially identical work could be published in German and Russian under different titles. This register does not attempt to document the convoluted bibliographical evolution of the various manuscripts, drafts, and publications present in Stepun's papers. Instead, writings are filed under the title as given on the work, and various language editions are organized chronologically under the title of the first published occurrence of the work.

Stepun's Iz pisem praporshchika-artillerista (in German translations, Als ich ein russischer Offizier war), Der Bolschewismus und christliche Existenz and Dostojewskij und Tolstoj, are represented almost exclusively by clippings of printed excerpts and reviews. Of the third German edition of Nikolai Pereslegin and Theater und Film, in addition to clippings Stepun's papers include printed proofs.

In contrast, Vergangenes und Unvergängliches (Russian edition Byvshee i nesbyvsheesia), Vstrechi, and Mystische Weltschau are represented by drafts, proofs and clippings. Of Vergangenes, Stepun's papers contain a corrected typescript of the Russian text, a copy of the German text marked for abridgment, material for a Spanish edition (possibly never published), and extensive clippings of published excerpts, reviews and publicity materials.

Vstrechi comprises several previously published articles on Russian writers and thinkers. Stepun's papers include drafts of each article at various stages of completion, from holographs to the proof pages of journal publication. Mystische Weltschau, Stepun's final large work, is also the best documented. Each of the five portraits that comprise the book can be followed from notes to holograph draft, from holograph draft to typescript draft, and, in some cases, from typescript draft to page proof. Apart from Stepun's memoirs, Mystische Weltschau is unique among Stepun's post-war writings in not having an extensive bibliographic trail.

The Shorter Writings contain everything from long articles to newspaper notices, encompassing many genres, from polemical newspaper articles to philosophical journal essays, from radio speeches to public lectures (course lectures are filed separately), and from his fictional story "Revnost'" and two poems to autobiographical sketches. Again, the themes and even titles of Stepun's works often intertwine and undergo subtle changes, and no attempt has been made to identify the relative standing of works on one topic or even with one title. This is especially true with respect to Stepun's public lectures, so that lectures with the same title can sometimes be dated as much as fifteen years apart, and often all that remains of the lecture is a newspaper notice or review, in which titles are often given in an approximate nature. It is also beyond the scope of this finding aid to precisely determine the genre and track down publication data for each piece of writing, and as a result many writings remain without a precise date.

In the third subseries of Writings, Untitled Works, the library has assigned topical titles (in [ ]) to the manuscripts, which are then arranged alphabetically by assigned title. In the subseries, Stepun's Research Notes, the first 21 files are arranged in the order in which they were found in Stepun's original binder. These notes relate to a number of topics which were of ongoing interest to Stepun, and which he often treated in his writing. Presumably, the notes were arranged in the files by him, alphabetically (more or less) according to topic. Loose notes follow, again alphabetized according to their apparent topic. (Stepun's handwriting, which is unclear at the best of times, makes classification a necessarily risky affair.) Alphabetized notes are followed by notes that remain either unidentified or fragmentary, and then by several notebooks that generally concentrate on particular themes or authors. Material in both Untitled Works and the Research Notes is generally undated.

The Reviews section contains Stepun's reviews of others' books, alphabetized by author or by title, except for the final review essay, which treats several books on related topics. The Course Lectures were probably read by Stepun while at the University of Munich. These courses covered familiar ground for Stepun, and some lecture material appears to have made its way into drafts of articles and books; no effort, however, has been made to trace the evolution of Stepun's lectures from classroom to public lecture and print, or vice versa. Most of the sheets of lectures follow a double numbering system (chapter and page), and this order has been restored as far as is possible. Stepun's handwriting once again makes complete confidence impossible in such an endeavor.

Series III, Organizational Affiliations (boxes 66-67) includes correspondence and documents relating to Stepun's participation in the Tolstoy Foundation and the Institut für Filmwesen (or Deutsches Institut für Film und Fernsehen). Most of the correspondence, reports and clippings pertaining to the Tolstoy Foundation originated with Tat'iana Shaufus; some relate to the directorate of the Foundation in Germany, of which Stepun was a member. The Institut für Filmwesen was founded in 1954 as a unique endeavor to study the production and art of film. Stepun was a founding member, and the various memoranda, minutes and reports collected in this series give a vivid picture of the Institut. In 1958, it appears, the Institut became embroiled in controversy due to its theoretical slant. It continued to exist under new leadership, and Stepun's role became minimal.

Series IV, Personal Papers (box 68) contains the Stepuns' identification and travel cards and papers, employment and health records, and other documentation of a personal nature, as well as a group of miscellaneous papers relating to events in Stepun's life. There is a copy of Natalia Nikolaevna's travel document in 1922, when they were expelled from the USSR (Box 68 folder 2078), three documents detailing Stepun's removal from his teaching post in 1937 (Box 68 folders 2079-2081), and many post-war documents chronicling the Stepuns' relocation in Munich and the hiring at the University of Munich. There are also two of Stepun's major awards: a copy of his 1910 doctoral degree, and a certificate signed by the President of West Germany for service to the German people. There one also finds Stepun's printed stationary and printed notices of his wife's death, along with invitations and advertisements. Of particular interest here are the chronological lists of correspondents compiled by Stepun, and the partial records of lectures read over the course of several years. A final section of personal papers comprises letters of recommendation written for students and colleagues.

Series V, Writings of Others (box 69), comprises all writings by individuals other than Stepun, apart from correspondence and reviews of Stepun's works or materials used by Stepun in the process of writing specific works. These files include: clippings and typescripts concerning Stepun; clippings and newspapers with articles by Stepun's colleagues and friends, often bearing Stepun's annotations; and writings on topics of particular interest to Stepun. These range from student essays to major works by Stepun's contemporaries, such as two books by Viacheslav Ivanov and an article by Paul Tillich. Finally, there are three holograph items of unknown authorship.

Series VI, Photographs and Artwork (Box 70), includes many unpublished photographs of Stepun from throughout his life. There are two large portrait photographs, a multitude of valuable photographs showing Stepun together with famous contemporaries, and also a rich collection of family photographs belonging to Natalia Nikolaevna and mostly dating to before 1917. Finally, there are moving photographs taken at Stepun's funeral, which mostly feature Stepun's sister Margarita and her companion Galina Kuznetsova. There are also photographs of third parties, including Viacheslav Ivanov. In addition, there is a portrait of Stepun by émigré artist Sergei Ivanov, and other minor works of art.

The Oversize section (Box 71) contains oversize material from series V and VI, and is listed in that order.

Dates

  • 1902 - 1965
  • Majority of material found within 1946 - 1965

Creator

Language of Materials

Chiefly in Russian and German.

Conditions Governing Access

The materials are open for research.

Boxes 72-73: Restricted fragile material. Reference surrogates have been substituted in the main files. For further information consult the appropriate curator.

Conditions Governing Use

The Fedor Stepun Papers are the physical property of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University. Literary rights, including copyright, belong to the authors or their legal heirs and assigns. For further information, consult the appropriate curator.

Immediate Source of Acquisition

Purchased from Margaret Stepun on various funds, 1967.

Extent

33.2 Linear Feet (73 boxes)

Catalog Record

A record for this collection is available in Orbis, the Yale University Library catalog

Persistent URL

http://hdl.handle.net/10079/fa/beinecke.stepun

Overview

The Papers consist of correspondence, writings, photographs, and personal papers documenting the life and work of Fedor Stepun as an émigré writer, educator, and political commentator. Principal correspondents include such famous Russian émigré writers as Nikolaĭ Arsenʹev, Ivan Bunin, Roman Gulʹ, I︠U︡riĭ Ivask, Michael Karpovich, Aleksandr Kerensky, Victor Leontovitsch, S. P. Melʹgunov, N. P. Poltorat︠s︡kiĭ, Leonid Rzhevskiĭ, Gleb Struve, Dmitrij Tschižewskij, V. Veĭdle, M. V. Vishni︠a︡k, Boris Zaĭt︠s︡ev, Lev Zander, V. V. Zenʹkovskiĭ, and Nicolas Zernov. Stepun was also in contact with noted German thinkers of his day, including Ernst Benz, Bernt von Heiseler, Max Horkheimer, Richard Kroner, Johannes Kühn, Thomas Mann, Zenta Maurin̦a, Paul Mildner, Carl Neumann, Ernesto Saemisch, Otto Taube, and Paul Tillich. There is also correspondence with a variety of other groups of people from his work as an editor, professor, as well as personal correspondence with friends and family.
The Writings consist of manuscript drafts, typescripts, and related publication material for a number of Stepun's major books and many of his shorter writings. All of Stepun's post-World War II books are represented here, including material for different translations. There are extensive notes and manuscripts of Stepun's lecture courses and individual lectures, papers relating to Stepun's participation in the Tolstoy Foundation and the Institut für Filmwesen, and a number of writings by such authors as V. I. Ivanov and Nikolaĭ Berdi︠a︡ev. In addition, the collection contains a number of photographs of Stepun his wife Natalía Nikolaevna Nikolśkaia and her family, and a portrait by émigré artist Sergei Ivanov.

FEDOR STEPUN (1884-1965)

Fedor Avgustovich Stepun was born in Moscow on February 6 (19) 1884, the eldest son in a family of German and Lithuanian stock. There is some evidence that his original name was Friedrich Steppuhn and that he was born a German citizen, accepting Russian citizenship before entering the army; until 1917 the Russian spelling of his name was Steppun. When he was three, his father, Avgust, became director of a paper factory and received a rural estate at Kondrovo; from then until secondary school, Stepun lived in a small Russian village. Later he would claim that village life, together with the Russophilism of his mother, Mariia, tempered his foreign blood and made him fully Russian. He subsequently converted from the Reformed Church to Orthodox Christianity.

In 1900, Stepun graduated from the Technical High School of St. Michael in Moscow, and enlisted for army service in 1901. He spent one year in an artillery division in the city of Kolomna. He underwent further military training there in 1904 and 1911. In 1914 he was called up for active duty in the war with Germany. Stepun's military experiences are described in great detail in his memoirs Vergangenes und Unvergängliches and in his 1918 autobiographical novel Pis'ma praporshchika-artillerista.

After his first period of military training, Stepun decided to devote himself to philosophical studies, to which purpose he applied to Heidelberg University. Stepun remained at Heidelberg from 1902 to 1910, attending lectures on a wide range of subjects. Throughout his stay, however, he remained under the particular tutelage and influence of the Neo-Kantian philosopher Wilhelm Windelband, and also enjoyed the advice of Heinrich Rickert and Emil Lask. Stepun received a degree in 1907 from the University of Heidelberg, and his Ph.D. in 1910, also from the University of Heidelberg. His doctoral dissertation, "Die Geschichtsphilosophie Wladimir Ssolowjews", was published by Fritz Eckardt Verlag in Leipzig under the name Friedrich Steppuhn. He published an essay in to Vom Messias. Kulturphilosophische Essays, whose contributors included Stepun's future friends and colleagues Sergei Gessen, Nicolai von Bubnoff, Georg Mehlis and Richard Kroner.

In Heidelberg Stepun met his first wife, Anna Aleksandrovna Serebriannikova, whom he married in about 1906 amidst tragic circumstances which are recounted both in his memoirs (where his wife is called Oloviannikova), and in his largely autobiographical novel, Nikolai Pereslegin, where she is called Tania. Both her real name and the date of their marriage remain uncertain. The marriage, which he called "a romance in the style of Dostoevskii", also ended tragically: barely two years after they were married, Anna drowned in the Baltic Sea, while attempting to rescue the younger brother of her own first husband. Stepun recalls in his memoirs that it was Professor Windelband, a classically haughty German philosopher, who broke the news of Anna Aleksandrovna's death to him. This passionate, early marriage, coupled with previous romantic encounters, contributed to Stepun's disenchantment with theoretical philosophy and pushed him in the direction of a more vitalistic thought, so-called 'philosophy of life', which he characterized in his novel Nikolai Pereslegin, "all my philosophy is a defense of life against [theoretical] constructions, of living eyes against points of view." It was about this time that Stepun began to give creative and theoretical expression to his life-long fascination with the artistic element in all aspects of life, from romance to theater and even politics. Memoirists are unanimous in declaring Stepun a primarily 'artistic nature', both in life and in his creative work.

Stepun had studied philosophy primarily under Neo-Kantian professors, and had begun his dissertation as a formal study of Solovyov's ethics. With time, however, he moved away from Kantianism towards German idealism and Solovyovian historiosophy. In the years after his first wife's death, Stepun wrote studies of Friedrich Schlegel and Rainer Maria Rilke. Although the Schlegel essay won high praise from Rickert and Georg Simmel, and Stepun continued to associate with his Kantian colleagues in the journal Logos, after his return to Russia in 1910 he soon found his intellectual home in the circle of Russian Symbolists and religious philosophers, such as Andrei Bely, Nikolai Berdiaev, Alexander Blok, Semen Frank, and Viacheslav Ivanov, to whose thought he would devote many of his mature works, and with some of whom he would remain close friends in emigration.

In 1910, together with his Heidelberg colleagues, Stepun became a founding editor of Logos. An International Philosophical Journal, which was published simultaneously in Russian (in Moscow) and German (in Tübingen). Stepun and Gessen took on the editorship of the Russian edition, and Stepun even traveled to Italy to arrange for an Italian version of the journal. The initial hostilities between Logos and representatives of Russian religious philosophy eventually abated, and Stepun became an active member of the Philosophical Societies of Moscow and St. Petersburg. In his memoirs, Andrei Belyi recalls a philosophical circle that formed around Stepun, and which included the budding poet Boris Pasternak. Stepun also contributed such essays as "Logos" and "Fenomenologiia landshafta" to the Symbolist journal Trudy i dni. In emigration, Stepun continue to hold a moderate position that allowed him to collaborate with both the stricter philosophers, such as Boris Jakovenko and Nikolai Losskii, and with their religious opponents, such as Nikolai Berdiaev, Sergius Bulgakov, and Vasilii Zen'kovskii.

In 1911, Stepun married Natal'ia Nikolaevna Nikol'skaia (born May 5, 1886, new style; she is called Nikitina in his memoirs, probably to protect those of her family who remained in the USSR). Natal'ia Nikolaevna had previously been engaged to Stepun's brother-in-law. Stepun also gave an artistic history of his second love in his novel Nikolai Pereslegin. You, as my Wife, will always remain God's harvester on my fields; whatever grains my life brings to bud, my soul will always know a yearning for Your sickle and the belief that, whatever matures within me, it matures only to die in Your embrace, on the blade of Your love. (203) Although she was from a noble family, Stepun's foreign friends always saw her as an embodiment of peasant Russia: simple, warm and hospitable. They spent much time in the following years, especially between 1918 and 1922, at her family estate Ivanovka, where Stepun worked the land as a peasant, an experience he often remembered with fondness.

From 1910 through 1914, Stepun wrote philosophical articles, mostly for Logos, Trudy i dni, and Severnye zapiski, and travelled around provincial Russia giving lectures to large audiences under the auspices of the "Bureau of Provincial Lectors", led by IUlii Isaevich Aikhenval'd. Stepun devotes many pages of his memoirs to his impressions of pre-war, provincial Russia, in particular the city Nizhnii Novgorod. During this time Stepun first exhibited a rare rhetorical gift that continued to stun his listeners throughout his life.

In 1914, Stepun was called up to serve in the First World War. He was commanded to the 12th Gunners Artillery Division in the rank of lieutenant, and, after an initial period in the Far East near Irkutsk, Stepun served throughout the Ukraine and Poland. The March revolution found his division in Galicia, and he was soon sent to Petersburg as part of an army delegation. Stepun became a representative of the front troops at the All-Russian Soviet of Workers', Peasants' and Soldiers' Deputies. He soon returned to the front, but was immediately called back to serve in the Political Section of the War Ministry, headed by ex-terrorist Boris Savinkov. Stepun played an active role in many important events of the pre-October period; he later told how he was present when A. F. Kerensky signed the order freeing Leon Trotsky from prison. At this time Stepun seems to have been closely tied to the Socialist Revolutionary Party (the SRs), although he was not a member. Stepun continued to write during this period: his first novel, Pis'ma praporshchika-artillerista, was first published in 1916 (in book form it was first published in 1918, together with a work by Savinkov). He was Political Editor for the newspaper Invalid (renamed Armiia i Flot Svobodnoi Rossii), where he published several polemical articles, photostats of which are among his papers.

Stepun was briefly arrested during the October Revolution, but soon made his way to Moscow. He was active in the opposition press, particularly in the Right SR Vozrozhdenie, which was closed in June 1918 (and succeeded by Syn otechestva), and as editor of Shipovnik. Called up into the Red Army, he was able to win a post in 1919 as repertoire and stage director of the Revolutionary Theater, where he staged Sophocles' "Oedipus Rex" and Shakespeare's "Measure for Measure". After losing this post in late 1920, Stepun retired to Ivanovka. Throughout the years 1918-22, Stepun continued to participate in meetings of the Free Philosophical Academy and revolutionary theater groups. In 1922 he collaborated with Nikolai Berdiaev and others in the collection Osval'd Shpengler i Zakat Evropy, and edited the literary and artistic almanac Shipovnik. In November of this year he was also expelled from Soviet Russia, together with a hundred and fifty other intellectuals. Stepun left the USSR with his wife and his mother, who died during the Second World War, and to whom Stepun devoted the final pages of his memoirs.

Stepun settled at first in Berlin, where he read lectures in the Religious-Philosophical Academy, founded by Nikolai Berdiaev and supported by the American YMCA, and at the Writers' Club. He published his collected philosophical essays in Zhizn' i tvorchestvo (Berlin, 1923), and also a book on the theater he had written at Ivanovka (Osnovnye problemy teatra). An expanded version of this book was later published in German as Theater und Kino (Berlin 1932; updated edition Theater und Film, München, 1953). He began to participate in the émigré press. He became literary editor for Sovremennye zapiski, where he published his semi-autobiographical and highly philosophical novel Nikolai Pereslegin (separate edition Paris, 1929) and a series of "Thoughts on Russia". Together with Sergei Hessen and Boris Jakovenko, Stepun became an editor of the rejuvenated Logos, which appeared in Prague. In early 1926, after a couple of years of residence in Freiburg-im-Breisgau, Stepun was offered a position teaching sociology at Technische Hochschule Dresden, largely thanks to the sponsorship of Richard Kroner and Paul Tillich, who were teaching there. Tillich and Kroner, who both emigrated to America after Hitler's ascent to power, remained lifelong friends of Stepun. It is unknown when Stepun received, or rather resumed his German citizenship.

Stepun held his Dresden position for eleven years. He became a well-known figure in the emigrant colony of the city, serving as president of the important Vladimir Solovyov Society. His constant employment also gave him a measure of security unusual among the emigration, allowing him to travel widely to other émigré centers, such as Prague, Berlin, Riga and Paris, and also to Switzerland, Austria and Scandinavia. He quickly became a central participant both in émigré and German intellectual circles, contributing articles to such journals as Put', Sovremennye zapiski and Hochland. Stepun was also active in the Russian Student Christian Movement (RSKhD), through which he developed his love for the Orthodox Church and deepened his concern for the younger generation of émigré Russians. He was an editor of the short-lived journal Utverzhdenie, together with Nikolai Berdiaev. In 1931, together with Georgii Fedotov and Il'ia Isidorovich Fondaminskii (pseud. Bunakov), Stepun became a founding editor of the journal Novyi grad, which would expound a new Christian and Socialist vision, uniting such outstanding thinkers and figures as Berdiaev, Sergius Bulgakov, Mother Mariia (Skobtsova), Marina TSvetaeva, and the three editors themselves. Stepun expressed his critique of Bolshevism and his positive ideals in a German book Das Antlitz Russlands und das Gesicht der Revolution (Leipzig, 1934), translated into English as The Russian Soul and Revolution (London and New York, 1936).

The National Socialist coup in Germany gradually began to affect Stepun in 1935. He was removed as an editor of Novyi grad, apparently due to the ambiguity resulting from his decision to remain in Germany and work within the system. A document among Stepun's papers, dated January 2, 1935 (Box 53 Folder 1607) indicates that he expressed public approval of elements of the National Socialist cause. But by 1936, Stepun had been exiled to the economics department in Dresden and had aroused the suspicions of the administration. On a visit to Switzerland in 1936, Paul Tillich told Stepun of the European view of Hitler, and recorded: "He is deeply shaken, feels that he has taken Nazism too lightly". Indeed, in June 1937 Stepun was removed from his position on charges of overt Christianity and sympathy for the Jews. His one-time disavowal of German citizenship and conversion to Orthodoxy, even the spelling of his name, were also held against him. Stepun's personal papers contain chilling evidence of this episode (Box 68 Folders 2079-2081). Stepun was also forbidden to speak publicly, and the rising international tensions further cut him off from his friends abroad. He made his last trip to Paris for many years in 1937, the year of the World's Fair.

Stepun spent the war-years writing his memoirs in Dresden and at friends' houses in the country. He was at the house of Paul and Irmengard Mildner in Rottach-am-Tegernsee when Dresden was fire-bombed in February 1945. Thus Stepun and his wife became refugees without money or property. In October 1946, however, Stepun was awarded an honorary professorship at the University of Munich in Russian Spiritual History, a section of the Philosophical Faculty created especially for him. Over the next several years, Stepun endeavored to emigrate to the United States, but was unable to find a suitable position in an American university. His ignorance of English was also an inhibiting factor.

From 1946 to 1964, Stepun lectured constantly at the University of Munich and other public forums throughout Germany, as well as abroad, particularly in Switzerland and Scandinavia. Many of these lectures were held under the auspices of the organization Deutsches Vortragsamt (originally Westdeutsches Vortragsamt), and many others were organized by local cultural associations. They covered familiar territory for Stepun, including such titles as: "The Crisis of Freedom in Our Time", "The Fall and Reconstruction of the Personality"; "The Historical Roots of the Bolshevik Revolution", and "Russian Caesaropapism and Russia's Tragedy". His lectures on the history of Russian thought included the following constant themes: "Dostoevsky's World-View", "The Tragedy of Tolstoi's Life", "Vladimir Solovyov - Prophet of the Turn of the Century", "Russia's Image of Goethe". Similar titles recur with great frequency in Stepun's writings and radio speeches.

Stepun participated in the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Osteuropakunde (German Society for the Study of East Europe), and other learned societies with interests in Russia. His interpretations of everything from Bolshevism to Russian Symbolism and Dostoyevsky became influential factors in German intellectual life. The original publication of his memoirs (1947-48; abridged version in 1961), together with the republication of both his novels in German translation (1951, 1963), opened new vistas on Russia for a country that was at this time fascinated with the real nature of the Soviet Union and international Communism. An abridged version, titled Das Antlitz Russlands und Gesichte der Revolution, was even a bestseller in Germany. Stepun also published a book of his essays devoted to Russian Communism, Bolschewismus und die christliche Existenz (München, 1958). His final book, Mystische Weltschau (München, 1964), summed up his life-long interest in Vladimir Solovyov and Russian Symbolist literature, and remains a central work on these topics. In these later years, Stepun regularly contributed to the journals Hochland and Merkur, and his articles were published regularly in the German press. He also often appeared on the radio. Stepun also became a key figure in the Deutsches Institut für Film und Fernsehen in 1950s, although this initiative came to a controversial end in 1956. Stepun was also active in the Tolstoy Foundation and other religious charity organizations in Munich and elsewhere. February 20, 1964, Stepun was feted by the Bavarian Academy of Fine Arts on behalf of his German and Russian-émigré admirers.

Throughout the early Cold War and subsequent Thaw, Stepun remained a giant of émigré letters and thought. He paid close attention to any significant cultural event, both in the emigration and in the Soviet Union, and refined and repeated his interpretation of Russian history as new events unfolded. Stepun contributed articles to Vestnik RSKhD, Vozrozhdenie, Novyi zhurnal, Opyty, Vozdushnye puti, Mosty (of which he was editor), Russkaia mysl' (La pensée russe), Za svobodu, Novoe russkoe slovo, and others. He frequently traveled to Paris to participate in émigré events. The original, Russian text of his memoirs was published to great acclaim in 1956. A collection of his literary essays was published as Vstrechi in 1962. In 1965 Stepun published his final work of fiction, the story "Revnost'".In recent years Stepun's intellectual legacy has begun to be appreciated in Russia, with the republication of many of his books and articles.

After his wife's death in August 1961, Stepun lived next door to his sister, Margarita, with her companion Galina Kuznetsova, who helped to care for him as his health deteriorated. He was also cared for by his former secretary, Dagmar Wienskowski. After enjoying many honors in his final years, "the voice of the other Russia" passed away on February 23, 1965, just days after his eighty-first birthday, after attending a lecture at the Bayern Academy of Fine Arts with his sister and Galina Kuznetsova. He was buried in Nordfriedhof cemetery in Munich on February 26, 1965.

Appendix: Names of Correspondents

Supplementary name list of correspondents to be found in the letter "General" files

ACT Teatro Club (Associazione di Cultura Teatrale)
Adriani, Hans
Agence Hoffman (Michael Hoffman)
Agis Verlag
Ahlsen, Leopold
Ahrens, Sigfrid
Aicher, Otto
Akademie der bildenen Kunste
Akademie der Diozese Rottenburg
Akademie fur Erziehung und Unterricht
Akademische Turnverbindung München
Akademisch-Politischer Club (München)
Aktiongemeinschaft Soziale Marktwirtschaft
A. Laumannsche Verlagsbuchhandlung, A.
Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau
Alberts, Adele (nee Carstanien)
Albertus Magnus Gesellschaft (Wuppertal)
Albiker, Karl
Aleksander, L. N.
Aleksander, T. O.
Alekseev, Nikolai
Alexander-Katz, Günther
Alverdes, Paul
Aman, Elisabeth
Amerika-Institut der Universität München
Amt für Gemeindedienst in der evangelische-Lith. Kirche in Bayern
Amtsgericht München
Anderle, Othmar
Andersch, Brünhild
André, Hans
Andrée, Christian
Andritzky, Christoph
Angelus, Oskar
Ansbach (Landratsamt)
Anschütz, Rudolf
Anti-Kommunistischer Volksbund für Frieden und Freiheit
Appel, Paul Herbert
Arani Verlag
Arbeitsausschuss des Comité für Interantionale Christliche Zusammenarbeit
Arbeitsgemeinschaft demokratischer Kreise
Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Berufstvertretungen Bildender Künstler Schwaben
Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Filmjournalisten
Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Erwachsenenbildung
Arbeitsbemeinschaft für Filmfragen an der Universität Köln
Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Forschung des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen
Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Kunst und Wissenschaft, Rheydt
Arbeitsgemeinschaft Kultureller Organizationen (Düsseldorf)
Arbeitsgemeinschaft Münchner Reserveoffiziere
Arbeitsgemeinschaft Ost
Arbeitsgemeinschaft Schulen Augsburg
Arbeitsgemeinschaft zur Förderung der Partnerschaft in der Wirtschaft
Arbeitskreis des Unternehmerfragen
Arbeitskreis für Ostfragen
Arbeitskreis für Unternehmerfragen
Arbter, Wilhelm von Archiv für publizistisches Arbeit Arnhold, Lisa
Arntz, H.
Arnulf Liebing, OHG
Artemov, A. (Mysl')
Ascot-Verlag
Association des Amis de Romain Rolland en Allemagne
Auer, Adinda
Auer, Carl
Augsburger Club
Ausseninstitut (Aachen)
Axster, Else

Babinger, Franz
Babinger, Mechthild
Bach, Monique
Bacher, Hans Herbert
Bachmair, Hans (?)
Bachtold, Rudolf
Bad Wiessee
Bade, Liudmila
Baden-Baden (Kurdirektion)
Badischer Verlag
Baebel, Hans Ulrich
Baeckmann, C
Bahnhofsbuchhandlung (Köln)
Bahr, Helène
Bähr, H. Walter
Bahlsen, Gerhard
Bajorat, F.
Banniza, Hermann
Bär, J. Gunther
Barat, S.
Bardey, Emil
Bartashev, A.W.
Bartylla, Manfred
Basle Centre for Economic and Financial Research
Basler, Otto
Bastion-Verlag
Bauer, Ksenia
Bauer, Stephanie
Baukunst und Workform
Baum, Marie
Baumann, Hans
Baumann, Johannes
Bavaria Atelier-Gesellschaft
Bavaria Filmkunst Aktiengesellschaft
Bayerische Staatskanzlei Bayerische Staatszeitung Bayerischer Landesverband für freie Volksbildung
Bayerischer Prüfungsverband öffentlicher Kassen
Bayerischer Sparkassen- und Giroverband
Bayerischer Volksbildung-Verband (Wahl, F)
Bayerisches Staatsschauspiel
Bayerisches Staatsministerium des Innern
Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Arbeit und Soziale Fürsorge (J. Maurer)
Bayerisches Staatsschauspiel Bayerland Bechtle Verlag
Beck, Paul
Becker, B.
Becker, Heinrich
Becker, Hermann
Becker, J.
Beckers, Heinrich
Becsi, Kurt
Bedenk, Wolfgang
Bedeula (?), H. Begegnung (Köln)
Behl, C. F. W.
Beining, Maria
Beisler, Hermann
Beisler, Ruth
Belinskaia, M. A.
Belitskaia, ?
Benusiglio, Juan Ed. (Benusiglio-Bernt)
Benziger, F. (Ostkirkliche Studiengruppe)
Berber, Ernst
Berchmanskolleg
Berg, A.
Berg, Charlotte
Berg, Rosa von
Berger, Bruno
Berger, Wilhelm
Bergisch Gladbach (City)
Bergmann, Gabriele
Bergmann, Johannes
Berliner Morgenpost
Bermbach, Lore
Bermuth, Fritz & Inge
Bernus, Alexander Freiheir von
Bertelsmann Fernseh-Produktion
Bertram, Elizabeth
Bethmann, M.
Bettikher, E.
Beuth, Felix
Beyer, Gerhard
Beyme, Klaus von
Bezzel, Dieter
Biedenkapp, L.
Biemel, ??
Bienert, Fritz
Bihler, H.
Bildungswerk Arnsberg
Bildungswerk Rosenheim (?Brandmager, A.????)
Binder, Gerhart
Binder, Paul
Binder, Rolf
Binswanger, Ludwig
Biolek, Herbert
Birnbaum, Walter
Birnmann, I?
Biron, Karl Prinz, von Curland
Bistumsring. Der Kulturgemeinden in der Erzdiözese Bamberg
Bitscherakoff, Lazare
Blanke, Ernst-August
Bleicken, Max
Blender, Else
Blum, E.
Bobke, Wolfgang
Bockelmann, Rita
Böcker, Hermann
Böcker, Juliane
Bodensee-Klub 1950
Böer, Ludwig
Bohatirchuk, Fedor Parfem'evich
Bohlen, Heinz
Böhme, Hermann
Böhringer, M.
Bon, Anton
Boppel, H.
Borchherdt, H.H.
Born, Adolf
Borodajkewycz, Taras von
Borovskaia, Nadezhda Mikhailovna
Borries, Kurt
Bosch, K.
Bottcher, ?
Braig, Friedrich
Brand, P. Wilhelm
Brandenstein, W.
Brandes, Rudolf
Brandlmeier, Dr.
Braun, Egon
Braun, ?
Braun, G.
Braun, M.
Braun, Magnus, Freiherr von
Braun, Richard
Braun, Siegfried (Ende. Redaktion und Anfang)
Braunmiller, P. W.
Breithaupt, W.E. Bremer Nachrichten Brenna, R.
Brenna-Rademacher, Susanna
Brenner, Hans Georg
Brenner, Wilhelm
Brentanoverlag
Bressler, Frieda
Bretschneidle, Lotte (nee Rehfeld)
Breucha, Hermann
Briefs, Goetz A.
Brinkmann, Carl
Brinz, R.
Britzelmayr, Wilhelm
Brivnieks, August
Brockhaus, E.
Bruder, Hermann
Brudi, W.
Brugk, Hans Melchior
Bruhn, Max & Martha
Bruno, Renate
Brüschweiler, Georges
Brusentseva, Galina
Buchal, J.
Bücherstube Fritz Seifert Hameln
Buchhandlung Fritz Lehmkuhl
Buchhandlung Hintzen
Buchhandlung J. Harder
Buchhandlung Josef von Matt
Buchhandlung L. Werner
Buchhandlung und Verlag Hans Huber Bern
Buchheim, K.
Büchner, Theodor
Buddeberg, T.
Budenz, Toni
Bühnenclub in Continental
Bund Christlicher Sozialisten
Bund der Deutschen Katholischen Jugend
Bund Deutscher Architekten
Bundeskanzleramt
Bundesminister des Innern
Bundesminister für Vertriebene, Flüchtlinge und Kriegsgeschädigte
Bundeswehramt Arbeitsgebiet Innere Führung (Widder)
Bundschal, Elizabeth & Franz
Burckhardt, Albert Lucius
Burckhardt, Carl J.
Burckhardt-Ruperti, M
Burda, Franz
Burdeke, S.
Burger, ?
Burghard, S.
Burghardt, Arthur
Bürk-Rohrbach, Anita
Busse, K.
Butenko, Nina Petrovna
Buxhoeveden, O. (Ol'ga Mikhailovna)
Buzin, Lilli

Carl Friedrich von Siemens Stiftung
Carl König Malergeschäft
Carlowitz, Barbara von
Carnap, Elisabeth
Carola von Crailscheim Buchhandlung (E. Gebhard)
Casino-Gesellschaft Burgdorf
Cassini, Julia
Casino-Gesellschaft Burgdorf
Castell, Ruth
Castrop-Rauxel (Stadt)
Catholic Relief Services
C. Bertelsmann Verlag Gütersloh
Centre d'Action pedagogigue et culturelle de Spire
Centro Italiano di Studi umanistici e filosofici
Centrum Österreich für Dokumentation und Information
Chademony, A.
Chemische Werke Hüls Aktiengesellschaft
Chr. Kaiser Verlag
Christian Verlag
Christlich-Demokratische Union
Christlich-Soziale Union in Bayern
Christliche Verein junger Männer
Christliches Bildungswerk - Menden
Christliches Bildungswerk - Passau
Christoff, P.
Chrystomos, Archpriest
Chuguev, Vladimir
Chugunov, Tikhon Kuz'mich
Chugunov, V.L.
Claudius Verlag
Claus, Claire L.
Cleinow, Hans J.
Cofalka, Johannes
Colberg, Klaus
Collegium Gentium (CEPES)
Colloquium
Comité für Internationale Christliche Zusammenheit
Committee on Science and Freedom (G. Polanyi)
Congressus Historiae Slavicae Salisburgensis
Consolata, M.
Cording-Suptle, Gabriele
Coring, G.
Corona Legentium Aquensis
Courvoisier, Elizabeth
Courvoisier, Hede
Czibulka, Alfons von

Daetz, Lily
Dahn, Elfride
Dall'Asta, E.
Danilov, N.
Dauelsberg, ?
Decker, Anke
Decker, Ehelete
Demokratische Gesellschaft
Demokratischer Kulturbund Deutschlands
Deneke, J. F. Volrad
Derbolav, Josef
Dessauer, Friedrich
Detroy, Consolata
Deutsch-Amerikanische Freundschaftstreffen
Deutsch-Ukrainische Gesellschaft
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Gerhard Hess)
Deutsche Freihietsliga (Johannes R. Becher)
Deutsche Nansen Gesellschaft Deutsche TagespostDeutsche Zeitung Deutscher Bücherbund
Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund
Deutscher Institut fur Filmkunde (H.W. Lavies)
Deutscher Kältetechnischer Verein Deutscher Kultur-Spiegel (Fränkischer Kultur-Spiegel)
Deutscher Werkbund (Wurtenberger-Buden) (H. König)
Deutschmann, Dietrich
Dietrich, A.
Dikreiter Verlagsgesellschaft
Dillman, Rudolf
Dilsbiburg (City)
Dingler, Max
Dinkel, Otto
Dinn, ?
Dinslaken, Landkreis
Dittmann, Elsbeth
Dlusski, P. W.
Dnipro (W. Lewytzkyj)
Doepfner, Julius Kardinal
Doerksen, Edith
Döhmel, Friedrich Dokumente. Zeitschrift im Dienst übernationaler Zusammenarbeit Dörfler, Peter
Dorgelo, Henk
Dorow (Volkshochschule Rosenwall)
Dörries, Bernhard
Dostoevskaia, E.
Dreesen Verlag Die Drei. Anthroposophische Zeitschrift (F. Götte)
Drewing, Julius
Drews, Wolfgang
Drohmert, René
Droste, Heinrich
Drozhevskaia, V.
Drussel, Vera
Dwinger, Edwin Erich
Dyk, Frau

Eberlein, Gerald
Eckle, ?
Eckstein, Hans (Suddeutscher Vertrags-Dienst)
Ecumenical Press Service
Ederle, J.
Edschmid, Kasimir
Ege, Eduard
Eggers, H. J.
Eggers, Nora
Egidy, Elsbeth
Ehingen, Stadt
Ehrismann, Ulrich
Eichbichler, Hermann Einkehr. Bremer Kirchenzeitung Einstein, Gertrude
Eisgruber, Else
Elektronischer Verein München (Rolf Döderlein)
Eller, Karl
Elmenaw, Barbara von
Elschner, Gerhard
Emig, Friedrich
Endres, Liesel
Engelhardt, Elisabeth
Engelhornverlag Adolf Spemann
Erckmann, Rudolf
Die erfolgreiche Film
Ernst, Anne
Erlanger Universität
Ernst, Anne
Ernst Weege Buchhandlung
Erzbischöfliches Klerikalseminar Freising
Ettlingen (Stadtverwaltung)
Eugen Diederichs Verlag
Eugen Reutsch Verlag Erlenbach (Zürich)
Europa Aeterna
Europa-Archiv
Europa Bund
Europa Union Verlag
Europäische Begegnung (Grote)
Europäische Hefte
Europäische Vereingung für wirtshaftlische und soziale Entwicklung
Europäische Verlagsanstalt
Eussle, Klaus G.
Evangelische Akademie Baden
Evangelische-Akademie Berlin
Evangelische Akademie Westfallen
Evangelische Buchhandlung Traugott Viering
Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland
Evangelische Kirche. Fernsehbeauftrage
Evangelische Studentenpfarrer Erlangen (??Tromm)
Evangelische Studentengemeinde München
Evangelische Studentengemeinde Tübingen
Evangelisches Kirchenlexikon
Evangelisches Studentenpfarramt Köln
Evangelisches Studentenwohnheim der Diakonissenanstalt München Evangelisch-Lutherische Kirchenzeitung Evangelisch-Lutherisches Pfarramt Apostelkirche
Evangelisch-reformierte Gemeinde zu Dresden
Evangulov, G.
Everding, August
Evgen'ev, Mikhail Konstantinovich
Eyck, Toni van
Eymer, H.

Fabricius, Ludwig
Fachausschuss Darstellende Kunst
Fahlburg. Post Tisens
Die Fähre (Willi Weesman)
Falck, A (Palma)
Falk, Karl
Falkenstein, Lise von
Falt, Theodor
Falts-Fein, V.
Faust, Eduard
Fauth, Gerhard
F. Bruckmann Verlag
Fe, V.
Feigles, L.
Felbinger, Alfred
Felix Meiner Verlagsbuchhandlung in Leipzig
Ferber, Friedrich
F.H. Kerle Verlag
Filipov, A.
Fill, Josef
Filmarbeitsgemeinschaften an den deutschen Hochschulen (Meuschel, Stefan)
Filmclub Göppingen
Filmclub Hamburg
Filmclub Heidelberg
Filmclub Heidenheim
Filmclub Herford
Filmclub Kiel
Filmclub Köln
Filmclub Lemgo
Filmclub Oberhausen
Filmclub Schweinfurt
Film-Club Soest
Filmclub Stuttgart
Filmclub Weisbaden
Filser-Verlag (Filser, Florence)
Fingerle, Anton
Fink, Brigitte
Finkbeiner-Eppe, Annemarie
Fischer Bucherei Frankfurt am Main (S. Fischer Verlag?)
Fischer, Herbert
Fischer, Ilse (cf. Heilbronner Stimme)
Fischer, Leonard
Fischer, Wolfgang
Fisher, Berta
Fisher, Nikolai
Flab-Lichtenberg, L.
Flügel, Heinz
Foelkersahm, Hamilkar Baron
Folkwangschule der Stadt Essen
Forchhammer, J.
Forster, ?
Forster, Dirk
Förster, George
Forsthoff, Ernst
Fortbildungsausschauss (J. Songen)
Forum
Foss, Bernhard
Franck, Werner
Franckh, Hans-Heinz
Franke, Karl H.
Frankfurter Rundschau
Die Frau
Frauenring Bayern
Frauenstein, G. von
Frederiks, Baron B. V.
Free Europe Citizens Service
Frei-Belotsvetova, Elena
Freie Rundschau
Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg
Freies Europa
Freiwirtschaftsbund
Freisburger, W.
Freistudentenschaft Bern
Freizeitgemeinschaft Siemens München
Fremery, Natasha and Walter
Freunde der Bildenden Kunst
Freunde der Residenz
Freunde der "Stätte der Begegnung"
Freudenberg, A.
Freundenfeld, Gurghard
Fr. Frommann Verlag
Friedmann, ?
Friedrich Bassermann Verlag
Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung
Frieson, Nina von
Friessner, Hans
Friengs, ?
Fritsch, Alexander von
Fritson, ?
Fritze, Wolfgang
Fritzsche, Ursula
Fröchtling, August
Frucht, Hans (with photograph)
Füll, Gertrude
Funk, Klaus
Fürstenberg, Ferd. Frhr. von
Furtwängler, Margaret

Gabriel, M.
Gaceta ilustrada
Gaede, ?
Gagarin, Evgenii
Gagarin, R., Fürst
Gahlnbäck-Wolff, Marita
Galerie Wolfgang Gurlitt (München)
Gallinger, Elsa
Gapanovich, J. J.
Garmaschoff, Georg W.
Gärtner, Eleonore
Gatschike, Horst
Gebhardt, Franz
Gebhardt-Leele, F.
Gebirgsjägerbataillon 232
Gebsattel, V. E. von
GEDOK
Gehrig, Marie and Hans
Geilen, Vitalis
Geislingen an der Steige
Geist und Freiheit
Gemen-Komitee (Franz Berning)
Genzsch, A.
Geppert, Lotte
Georg-August Universität
Georgiades, J.
Geppert, Lotte
Gerecke, H.
Gerhardt, Dietrich
Gerloff, H.
Gershel'man, E.
Gerstacker, W. (Frankische Kreis)
Geschichte in Wissenschaft und Unterricht
Gesek, Ludwig
Gesellschaft christliches Abenland
Gesellschaft der Biedermeier Baden
Gesellschaft der Bücherfreunde zu Hamburg
Gesellschaft für christliche Kultur Würzburg
Gesellschaft Imshausen
Gicklleorn (?), Walter
Gilbert, O
Gilde (Bayerischer Krankenversicherungsverein?)
Giler, L
Gillianth, K.
Girgenson, B
Giterman, Valentin
Glantz, Wolfgang
Glassen, E.
Gleerapska Universitetsbokhandeln
Glimm, Gesine???
Glogger, Charlotte
Glogowski, Paul
Goarind (?), Rudolf
Goethebund Delmenhorst
Goldenweiser, A. A. (Aleksei Aleksandrovich)
Goldhammer, Regina
Goldschmidt-Jentner, Rudolf R.
Goldvin, T.
Goncharov, N.
Gordienko, N. G.
Gordon, Edmund von
Gordonov, Andrei
Gorny, A.
Gorte, Gertrud
Gorte, Ludwig
Gotthelf-Verlag
Gottschalk, H. L.
Gouvernment Militaire de la Zone Francaise d'Occupation
Grabert, W.
Grabis, Th.
Grägor, Arthur
Gras, Marion
Gregorius Verlag
Greifenhagen, Helmuth
Gremm, Alfred
Grenel
Greve, Rolf
Grimm, Elisabeth
Grimm, Heinrich
Groetschel, Johannes
Groezinger, Anne
Groh, Hella
Gropp, K.
Gross, ?? (Frau)
Gross, Werner
Grossmann, Felizitas
Grossmann, Paul
Grote, Ludwig
Gruber, Theodor
Gruner, L.
Grüzinger, W.
Guerard, Nikolas von
Guillemin, Bernard
Guirten, E.
Guislar, F.
Gumppenberg, Herr von
Gundermann, Fritz
Günther, Herbert
Gunthof, Mayer
Gunzberger, Elsbeth
Gunzert, Gertrude Barbara

Haas, A. de
Habermann, Willi
Habbel, Josef, Jr.
Hache, R.
Hadrossek, P.
Hagemann, Walter
Hagemeister, Heinz von
Hagen (City)
Hagen, Rainer
Hahn, Fr.
Hahn, Hans-Peter
Hahn, Josef
Hall, Maria
Haller, Rudolf
Halm, Hans
Hamberger, Rudolf
Hamburg, Else
Hamburger akademische Rundschau
Hamburger öffentliche Bücherhallen
Hamm, Martl
Handbuch der Weltgeschichte
Handwerberei Rohi
Hänel, Gerhard (Handwerberei)
Hanfsler, H.
Hannoversche Allgemeine
Hannoversche Hochschule
Hannoversche Presse
Hanns W. Brose GMBH & Co.
Hans, ?
Hans Bredow-Institut
Hans Schwarz Verlag
Hansen, Kurt Heinrich
Harder, Johannes
Harten, R. von
Hartenback, Walter
Hartig, H. A.
Harting, J.
Hartmann, Arthur
Hartmann, Heinrich
Hartmann, Kurt and Lore (in re Meta Gadesmann)
Hasinger, Fritz
Hassmann, Heinrich
Hasting, ? (Frau)
Hattemer, Magdl
Hauffe, Hans Cruntes (?)
Haus Adlerberg
Hauska, Maria
Haussmann, Wilhelm
Haut-Commissariat de la République Française en Allemagne
Hawel, Gerhard
Hechtz, M.
Heckel, D. Theodor (Dean of ??, q.v.)
Hederer, Oswald
Heerwagen, Alfred
Hegele, Gotthold
Hegemann, Ferdinand
Hehn, Peter
Heidelberger Kulturbund
Heidenberger, P. and A.
Heidt, H.
Heiduschka, Hans-Georg
Heidrich, ? H. (Hannover Landesbund; Stadttheater Lubeck)
Heike, O.
Heimann, Eduard
Heinrichs, P.
Heinz Ullstein-Helmut Kindler Verlag
Helkenberg, Nina
Hellmann, Rudolf
Helmes, Fromund
Hengstenberg, H. E.
Hennig, Arno
Hennig, Helmut
Hennig, Johann
Henschel, Bien[art]
Hentrich, Konrad
Herbert Rothmayer
Herdersche Buchhandlung München
Herdes, Walter
Herrmann, Johanna
Herrschel, Christoph
Hess, Willi
Hessen, Johannes
Hessische Minister für Erziehung und Volksbildung
Hessischer Rundfunk
Hessische Verlagsanstalt
Heubl, Franz
Heute
Heymann, P. Otto
Hickenlooper, ??
Hien, Hans
Hierling, Sebastian
Higgin, Egon
High Commissioner for Refugees
Hildebrandt, Erica
Hilf, Rudolf
Hilger, Gustav (re Tolstoy Found.)
Hilger, W.
Hilsberg, H. Christoph
Hirschhorn, Hans
Hirtz, Wilhelm
Hitzer, Friedrich
Hlynowski, G. von
Hoffman, Elle
Hoffman, Florenz von
Hoffman, Johanna
Hoffman, T. F.
Hoffminden, ?
Hofmann, Michael
Hog, Hugo
Hogrege, B.
Holl, Adolf
Holldack, Maria
Holle Verlag (Darmstadt)
Hollerer, Walter
Holst, Walter
Holtbecker, Carl
Holthaus, K.
Holytschinskyi, A.
Honigsheim, Paul
Hoppe, Gisela
Hörmann, Wolfgang
Hornitz, Kurt
Hornuf, J.
Huber, Anton
Hugendubel, H.
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Schimmelwitz-Hegmann, Charlotte
Schimmöller, H.
Schischkoff, Georgi
Schkurko, Victor (Viktor Petrovich Shkurko)
Schleim, ?
Schlemmer, Adolf (Privatklinik Dr. Schlemmer)
Schler, Georg
Schlesinger, F. (Shlezinger)
Schlintze, Hanna
Schlippe, Yura
Schlitter, D.
Schlocker, Georges
Schlosstheater Celle
Schluter, Andreas
Schmauss, A. (Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Osteuropa Kunste)
Schmeetz, Erich
Schmeetz, Hans-Gerd
Schmid, Karl
Schmid Noeur, Elisabeth
Schmidt, Emil
Schmidt, Gerhard
Schmidt-Heinze, H.
Schmidt-Pauli, Kurt Edgar von
Schmidtlein, Maria
Schmitt, Joh.
Schmitt-Sulzthal, Rudolf
Schmitz-Egelhaaf, Alfred
Schmücker, Ingeborg
Schmuecker, Marie-Therese
Schnabel, Rudolph
Schneider-Fassbaender, Martha
Schockenhoff, Heinz
Schoenrich, Christa
Schoepf-Witting, Sibylle
Scholl, Elisabeth
Scholl, Günther
Scholl, Robert
Scholz, Karl
Schönberg, Michael von
Schoneck, Hans
Schondorff, Joachim Schöner wohnen Schopen, Edmund
Schopke, Artur (Artur Shepke)
Schorer, Maria
Schottlaender, Felix
Schrader, Hansgeorg
Schraeder, Irmgard
Schramm, Karin
Schreiber, Hans
Schreieg, Anton
Schreiter, Theo
Schremmer, Ernst
Schröder, H.
Schröder, Theodor-Werner
Schröpfer, Johann
Schröter, Max
Schubart Buchhandlung
Schubert, Adelheid (A. Dorn)
Schubert, Ernst
Schubert, Walter
Schubert, Wilhelm
Schubring, S.
Schuester, Michael
Schüle, Emil
Schuler-Kleiner, F.
Schult, Herta
Schulte-Bisping, Hildegard
Schultz, Albert
Schultz, Hans Jürgen
Schulze-Battmann, Elfriede (Landesamt für Museen)
Schulze-Battmann, Eva
Schulze-Buxloh, F.
Schulze-Kaiser, ??
Schulzle, Josef
Schumacher, Ernst
Schumann, Hans
Schunk, H.
Schüpfer, Johann
Schupp, Gisela
Schurig, Walter
Schütt, F.
Schütte, Ehrenfried
Schütz, Johannes
Schütze, Johannes
Schutze, Fritz Schwäbische Donau Zeitung Schwalbe, M.
Schwann. Pädagogischer Verlag und Druckerei
Schwarz, ?
Schwarz, Alfred
Schwarz, Ernst
Schwarz, Fritz
Schweighoffer, F.
Schweizerischer Buchhandler- und Verlagerverein
Schwerte, H.
Sedlmayer, Hans
Seeger, Ingeborg and Arno
Seeliger, Lieselotte
Segal, R.
Seger, I.
Sehrwald, Margarita von
Seidelmeier, Heinz
Seidlein, Karen von
Seifart, Maria
Seifert, Rudolf
Seiffert, August
Seikendorff, Baronin von
Selenisch, Jutta
Semenov, Mikhail Nikolaevich Der Senator für Volksbildung Sender Freies Berlin
Sennewald, Lothar
Senning, A.
Settenmeyer, ?
Seyboth, Hermann
S"ezd Rossiiskikh Zarubezhnykh Deiatelei
Shik, Aleksandr
Shmelev, Vsevolod
Shteininger, Aleksandr
Shtraus, Elena (with letter from N. M. Borovskaia)
Siebeck, Hans Georg
Sigsfeld, Irmgard von
Siemens, Christian
Siewerth, Gustav
Sikk, August
Sill, Hans
Siller, Ruth
Simaiti, A.
Simon, W.
Sinz, Max
Sivers, E. von
Sivers, Margaret[e] von
Skalon, N.
Skogholm, Carl Werner
Skonietzki, Rudolf
Slanina, Ernst W.
Slavisches Institut (München)
Sleptsova, A.
Sleptzov, Platon Alekseevich Oiunskii
Societa Italiana di Sociologia
Societas Hobbesiana
Söhngen, Josef
Soiuz Bor'by za Osvobozhdenie Naradov Rossii
Sommer, Albert
Sommer, Ingeborg
Sommer, Kaspar
Sonneborn, M. Sonntagsblatt (Hamburg) Sontagsgesellschaft (Wattwil)
Sorokin, ?
Spachtholz, Otto Josef
Spakovsky, A. von
Spangenberg, Berthold
Specovius, Günther
Spengel, Rita
Spies, Emily
Spies, Gerty
Spies, Rudolf
Spletz, Oskar
Spolen, Gretel
Sporer, Georg
Sprengel, Rita
Springe, Freimut
Staatliche Werkakademie Kassel
Staatliches Landschulheim Marquartstein
Staatsministerium Buro fur Humatsdient
Stadelmayer
Stadler, Priska
Stadler, Wolf
Stadtbucherei München-Schwabing
Städtische Bühnen Bielefiedel
Städtische Bühnen München
Städtische Volkhochschule Oberhausen
Städtisches Gymnasium in Heine
Städtisches Kulturamt
Stadtmüller, G.
Stadttheater Ingolstadt
Stäglich, Dieter
Stählin, Rudolf
Stakhovich, Mariia Aleksandrovna
Stamm, Kurt
Stammler, Wolfgang
Standortälteste der Bundeswehr
Standortkommandantur (Ingolstadt, Mittenwald, Traunstein)
Stanfield, B. M.
Starytskii, V.
Stauber, Martin
Stauder, Gertrud
Stauder, Heinz
Stauffenberg, Graf Schenk von
Stebut, Peter von
Stedry, Vladimir
Steen, Hedwig
Stefanovich, Konstantin
Steidle, Robert
Steigner, J.
Stein, H. E.
Steinbach, Erich
Steinbauer, Wolfgang
Steinbüchel, Theodor
Steiner, Julia
Steingrüben Verlag
Steininger, Alexander
Steinwand, D. Eduard
Stellwag, ?
Stellzig, Helene
Stendorovskaia
Steppuhn, Albrecht
Steppuhn, Hans
Steppuhn, Luise
Stickelburger, Rudolf
Stiebler, Gerbert
Stifterbibliothek
Stiftung Europa
Stiftung Landerziehungsheim Neubeuern
Stillfried, Gebhard
Sting, Kurt
Stober, G. (Kreis der Freunde Paul Tillichs)
Stocker, Dieter
Stoian, P.
Stoltenberg, Hans L.
Stölzl, Anneliese
Stomberg, Ariane
Stone, Geoffrey
Stopinger, Siegfried
Storch Verlag
Storlinger, Otto
Stöver, Gerd
Straase, Bernd
Stradwitz, Maja
Straub, Therese and Gertrude
Strauss, Helène
Streitwieser, Elfriede
Strelka, Joseph
Streller, Justus
Strobel, Hans Rolf
Strocka, Michael
Ströhm, ?
Strommonger, Elly
Studenten-Filmstudio der Universität München
Studentenschaft Basel
Studentenschaft der technischen Hochschule München
Studentenvertretung der Medizinischen Akademie Düsseldorf
Studentische Filmfreunde an der Universität München
Studentischer Filmclub München
Studentsischer Filmkreis (Darmstadt)
Studentisches Kuratorium für Wiedervereinigung
Studio für Filmkunst
Studium Generale (Springer-Verlag)
Stülpnagel, Siegfried
Stümmer, Erich Stuttgarter Zeitung (Biedrzynski, Schoningh)
Süddeutsches Landestheater der Jugend
Süddeutsches Theater der Jugend
Südtiroler Kulturinstitut (Bozen)
Südwestfunk
Sulger, Leopold Summa Kulturphilosophische Gesprache Summa Verlag
Svetov, A.
Swiridoff, Paul
Swoboda, Marianne
Szankowska, A.

Tagespost Tarr, R. Die Tat Tchimorin, C.
Technische Hochschule Karlsruhe
Technische Hochschule. Studium general. Arbeitskreis Film)
Technische Universität Dresden (A. Weichold)
Terentiev, T.
Terres-Trip, Luise
Teucher, Eugen
Theatergemeinde Bonn
Theatergemeinde Köln
Theater Kassiererin (?)
Theatersammlung der Hansestadt Hamburg (Else Legband)
Theaterwissenschaftliche Sammlung der Universität (Erlangen)
Theens, Karl Thieme
Theologische Fachschaft Basel (Paul Helfenberger)
Thermal-Sol-Radiumbad Bad Münster
Theuermann, Karin
Thiel, Reinhold
Thiele, A.
Thielmann, Klaus von
Thieme, Ernst
Thieme, Sybille
Thieringer, Rolf
Thies, Hans Arthur
Thilenius, Dietmut
Thimm, Gerhard
Thom, Johannes
Thomas, Elsie
Thomé, Josef
Thomson, Erik
Tiemann, Bernhard
Tietze, Heinrich
Time-Life International (Enno Hobbing)
Timken-Zimkann, Stefanie K. and Reinhard P.
Timreck, Lusanne
Tirpitz, W. von
Titicheani (?), P.
Tobisch, Oswald O.
Tolstaia, Lidiia
Traub, Hedwig
Traub, Hermann
Traumenn, ?
Traut, Ludwig
Trem, Hilde
Trifels Verlag
Tronier Funder, C.
Trushnovich, A.
Tsaradkin, S.
Tsakonas, Dem.
TSchekunow, Georg (Chekunov)
TSchwertka, G. (IUrii Chvertka)
Tuiskonia

Ude, Karl (Welt und Wort)
Uhde, Ernst
Uhde-Bernays, Hermann
Ukrainian Youth Organization
Ulner, Martin
Unabhängige Hochschulgruppe für Wehrkunde
Uncic, K.
UNESCO
Unger, Elena
Union. Deutsche Verlagsgesellschaft Stuttgart Die Union. Monatsschrift der Union der leitenden Angestellten Universidad Nacional de Cordoba
Universitá di Napoli
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Universität Bonn. Slavistisches Seminar (M. Woltner)
Universität Mainz (F. J. Rintelen)
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Universitetet Oslo. Det Praktisk-Theologiske Seminar
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Unterberger, E.
Unterberger, J.
Unverricht, Gabriel
Urania Berlin. Deutsche Kultur-Gemeinschaft (Otto Henning)
Uspenskii, N.
Uthe-Spencker, Joachim
Uvarova, N.

Vagtsenko, Vsevolod Petrovich
Val'denmaier, S.
Valentine, Mitchell and Company Limited
Val'ter, V.
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Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht Verlagsbuchhandlung (Göttingen)
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Velhagen und Klasings Monatshelfte
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Verband der Lehrer an der berufsbildenden Schulen der Pfalz
Verband der nordrheinischen Textilindustrie
Verband der Volkshochschulen des Landes Rheinland-Pfalz
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Verband oberer Angestellar der Gisen und Stahlindustrie
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Verden-Göring, Georg
Verein Deutscher Ingenieure
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Vereinigung des Katholischen Buchhandels
Vereno, Gertrude Maria (w/ Dr. Matthias)
Verkehrsverein Oberhausen
Verlag Albert Nauck & Co.
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Verlag der Frankfurter Hefte
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Verlag deutscher Volksbücher
Verlag Dr. Schnell & Dr. Steiner
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Verlag für Wirtschaft und Sozialpolitik
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Volksbildungskurse Glarus
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Wachsmuth, R.
Wachtmann, Hans Günter
Wagner, Fritz (Ende. Redaktion und Anfang)
Wagner, Helmut
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Walltor-Verlag (Gideon Schüler)
Walter, R. von
Walter, ?
Walter de Gruyter
Walter G. Mühlau
Walther, Frieda
Walther, Paul
Walz, R.
Wartezimmer
Weber, Adolf
Weddigen, W.
Wedenjapin, N. (N. Vedeniapin)
Wegner, Willy
Wehrebereichskommando
Wehrt, Brigitte
Wehrt, Hartmut
Weidemann, Kurt
Weidemann, Olga
Weidhaas, Th.
Weidlich, Wolfgang
Weigert, J.
Weinheimer Senioren Convent
Weinreis, Käthe
Weisbender, Anneliese
Weismantel, Leo
Weiss, Andreas von
Weitzenberg, A. O.
Welch, H. A.
Weldler, Norbert Welt am SonntagDie Welt der SlavenWelt im GesprächWelt und WortWelt am Sonntag Weltläufer. Cursor Mundi (R. Lauth)
Wendelstadt, Herta
Wendt, ?
Wenzl, A.
Werber, Karl Gunter
Werdohl, Stadtverwaltung
Werkgemeinschaften christlicher Arbeitnehmer
Wersebe, ? von
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Wesendank, Alador von Westdeutsche Allgemeine Westdeutscher Rundfunk
Westdeutscher Verlag
Westfälischer Industrie-Klub zu Dortmund
Westhoff-Niemeyer, Hilde
Wetter (City)
Wheelis, Sigrid M.
Wichmann, ?
Wiedemann, Albert
Wiedemann, Käthe
Wiedemann, Olga
Wiedmann, ?
Wieja, Klaus
Wieszner, Georg Gustav
Wilberg, Hans Joachim
Wilczynski, Jan
Wild, Gerhard
Wildman, Allan and Helga
Wilhelm, Rudolf M. E.
Will, Günter
Wille, Klaus and Claudia
Willecke, Eberhard
Williams, Robert
Winckel, P. aus dem
Winkel, H. J. zum
Winkler, E.
Winkler Verlag
Wippern, Hans
Wirsing, Annelis
Wirsing, Giselher
Wirtschaftsgilde
Wirtschaftsverband Münchner Buchhändler Wissenschaft und Weltbild Wissenschaftliche Auskunftei
Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft
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Wissenschaftlicher Forschungs- und Lehrstab
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Wittig, H.E.
Wittslock, Nora-Liane
Woebs, M.
Woefurt, Kurt von
Wolff, E.
Wolff, Marga
Wolter, Gerhard
Wolters, Jürgen-Detlef
Wortelmann, Fritz
Wühr, Wilhelm
Wulf, Heinz
Wunderle, Georg
Wünzel, F.X.
Würfel, Kurt
Wurstner, Theo
Württembergische Akademie für Erziehung und Unterricht
Württembergische Landesbibliothek
Württembergische Staatstheater Stüttgart
Wüst

Zacharias, Paul
Zakharii, Otets
Zänker, ??
Zastrow, Roswitha
Zeffler, Helmut
Zehnte interantionale Theaterwoch
Zeibig, Max
Zeiner-Henrikson, R. Zeitschrift fur philosophischer Forschung Zenker, C.
Zenker, Ed.
Zentralfachschule der duetschen Susswarenwirtschaft
Zentralstelle des Borromäusvereins
Ziegler, Martha
Zigel', I.
Zillman, Horst
Zimmerman, Paul F.
Zinke, Herbert
Zinn, K.
Zion Lutheran Church
Zitzewitz, S.
Zocher, Rudolf
Zorn, Rudolf
Zuckmayer, Gisela
Zuckermayer, Thea
Title
Guide to the Fedor Stepun Papers
Status
Under Revision
Author
by Nicole Bouche, Robert Bird & Christopher Lemelin
Date
May 1996
Description rules
Beinecke Manuscript Unit Archival Processing Manual
Language of description note
Finding aid written in English.

Part of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library Repository

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