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James Weldon Johnson and Grace Nail Johnson papers

Call Number: JWJ MSS 49
Scope and Contents
The James Weldon Johnson and Grace Nail Johnson Papers provide evidence of the personal and professional lives of James Weldon Johnson, Grace Nail Johnson, and to a lesser degree, the Johnson and Nail families, spanning the years 1850 to 2005, with the bulk of material dating between 1900 and 1976. The Papers chronicle Johnson’s writing career and involvement in education, politics, and cultural affairs and consist of a variety of documents, including correspondence, writings, personal papers, scrapbooks, photographs, artwork, objects, and audiovisual materials. Johnson was involved in a number of significant movements and organizations during his lifetime, and, as a result, the Papers also provide insight into broader topics in American and African-American history during the twentieth century.

Various facets of Johnson’s professional life are represented in the papers, with particular emphasis on Johnson’s career as an author. His writings include notes, background materials, drafts, published versions, and reviews, which combined, provide insight into various phases of the writing craft and the publishing process. Johnson often retained various drafts of his writings, many of which contain handwritten corrections and notes, providing rich evidence of his creative process. Johnson’s correspondence with Grace Nail also reveals his ideas and ambitions as an author. His correspondence records more broadly his literary and social circles, with correspondents such as writers Benjamin Brawley, William Stanley Braithwaite, Sterling Brown, Claude McKay, and Anne Spencer as well as publishers such as Alfred Harcourt and Alfred and Blanche Knopf. Throughout his career, and particularly during the Harlem Renaissance and his professorships at Fisk University and New York University, Johnson mentored many aspiring authors, a role that is documented in his correspondence. The Johnsons were an influential couple during the Harlem Renaissance, mentoring and hosting artists, and the Papers provide a window into this significant period in African-American cultural history.

Johnson’s work as an educator, lyricist, and member of the United States Consular Service, are also represented in the Papers. For example, his early career as a teacher and ongoing interest in education are illustrated in photographs of Johnson as Principal of Stanton School (Jacksonville, Florida), his correspondence with Atlanta University, and his writings about African-American education. Johnson’s tenure at Fisk University and New York University during the later period of his life is recorded in pedagogical documents ranging from lecture notes and syllabi to student papers. Combined, this material provides insight into Johnson’s role as an educator and his methods for teaching creative writing and literature.

Johnson’s work for the United States Consular Service is represented in his correspondence, reports, photographs, and printed ephemera, such as clippings and invitations. Johnson’s correspondence with Grace Nail during this period also provides insight into his experience with the Consular Service. In addition this material documents American interests in South America during this period, such as the American intervention in Nicaragua, and consular life.

Johnson’s work as a lyricist and collaboration with his brother Rosamond Johnson and Bob Cole are chronicled in Johnson’s writings, which include drafts for various short song lyrics and “Lift Ev’ry Voice and Sing.” The Cole and Johnson Brothers song-writing team is also captured in photographs such as a portrait autographed by all three members. Johnson also maintained scrapbooks on musical comedy and theatre documenting various productions and performers during the early twentieth century. The Papers are thus a resource for understanding theatre and performance, particularly in New York, during the first half of the twentieth century. In addition to Johnson’s own materials relating to his work as a lyricist are those of his brother as well as research material gathered by Johnson while writing Black Manhattan.

There is a small amount of material relating to Johnson’s role in the N.A.A.C.P., however, the majority of this documentation is in the N.A.A.C.P. records at the Library of Congress. The Beinecke Library holds some of Johnson’s N.A.A.C.P. writings, such as his series of essays "Self Determining Haiti" based on his investigation on behalf of the Association on the American occupation of Haiti. In addition, Johnson’s personal relationships with prominent N.A.A.C.P. Board members, such as Arthur B. Spingarn, Joel E. Spingarn, and Mary White Ovington, are documented in his correspondence. A number of snapshots also record the Johnsons’ visits with Ovington at her home “Riverbank,” which influenced the Johnsons to likewise choose Great Barrington, Massachusetts, as the site for their summer home “Five Acres.”

The Johnsons’ personal lives are also richly documented in the Papers, which include correspondence from early in their marriage, snapshots of the couple with friends and family, legal and financial records, and a number of other personal effects, ranging from stationery and Johnson’s last pen to monogrammed towels.

The Johnsons’ family and close friends (chiefly their protégée Ollie Jewell Sims Okala) are also documented in the Papers. Correspondence between family members as well as formal and candid photographs provide insight into the Johnson and Nail families, members of which are prominent in their own right. For example, Johnson’s correspondence with his brother, Rosamond, reveals information about the latter’s career as a successful musician and performer. The correspondence also records the lives of John B. Nail and John E. Nail, who were influential African-American businessmen largely involved in real estate. Other documents, ranging from legal and financial papers to personal papers, similarly document the Johnson and Nail families. For example, Mrs. Johnson avidly collected newspaper clippings and created scrapbooks, and in addition to documenting the Johnsons, this material chronicles the lives of John B. Nail, John E. Nail, Rosamond Johnson, and Mildred Johnson.
Language of Materials
Chiefly in English; some materials in Spanish and French.
Conditions Governing Access
The materials are open for research.

Box 116 (audiovisual materials): Restricted fragile. Reference copies may be requested. Consult Access Services for further information.

Box 155 (Legal and financial records): Temporarily restricted. For further information consult the appropriate curator.

Box 156: Restricted fragile material. Reference surrogates have been substituted in the main files. For further information consult the appropriate curator.
Conditions Governing Use
The James Weldon Johnson and Grace Nail Johnson Papers are the physical property of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University. Literary rights, including copyright, belong to the authors or their legal heirs and assigns. For further information, consult the appropriate curator.
Immediate Source of Acquisition
Gift of Grace Nail Johnson, 1941-1976; Gift of Ollie Jewell Sims Okala, 1976-2001; Purchased from Sondra Kathryn Wilson on the James Weldon Johnson Memorial Collection of Negro Arts & Letters Fund, 2002-2006.
Organized into eleven series: I. Correspondence, 1896-1972; II. Writings, 1890-1974; III. Consular Service, 1906-1912; IV. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 1917-1965; V. Personal Papers, 1892-1988; VI. Printed Material, 1928-1973; VII. Legal and Financial Records, 1906-1998; VIII. Family Papers, 1872-2005; IX. Photographs, 1850-1985; X. Art and Objects, 1850-1980; and XI. Audiovisual Material, 1949-1995.
circa 1850-2005
Majority of material found within 1900 - 1976
142.57 Linear Feet ((160 boxes) + 2 record album storage, 9 broadside, 2 roll, 4 art, 1 cold storage)
Related Names
Johnson, James Weldon, 1871-1938
Johnson, Grace Nail, 1885-1976
Language of Materials
Language of Materials
Language of Materials
Spanish; Castilian
Language of Materials