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Beer family papers

Call Number: MS 73

Scope and Contents

The Beer Family Papers are divided into six series: Arranged in six series: I. Family: General, 1851-1969. II. William Collins Beer, 1880-1917. III. Thomas Beer, 1897-1947. IV. Alice Baldwin Beer, 1896-1969. V. Richard Cameron Beer, 1901-1959. VI. Linus Caleb Baldwin, 1856-1910.
The papers illustrate the lives of four generations of Beers from the 1850s through the next one hundred years. The pivotal character is William Collins Beer, businessman, lawyer and political lobbyist, although his son, Thomas, the author, is perhaps the most important individual represented in the papers. In addition to the papers of father and son, there are letters and other materials of significance of William's parents and brothers and sisters of Bucyrus, Ohio; of his wife and her family, the Baldwins, of Council Bluffs, Iowa; of his other children, Alice and Richard; and of various other relatives.

The papers of all family members, except those of William, his three children, and Linus Caleb Baldwin, his father-in-law, are filed in the first series, FAMILY: GENERAL. The bulk of the papers of these individuals have been arranged in separate series due to their greater significance and volume. Only their correspondence with other family members, their financial papers and their photographs appear in FAMILY: GENERAL. Family relationships are illustrated in the charts which can be foundhere.


The material in this series is arranged in six sections: Correspondence, Sermons of Reverend Thomas Beer, Financial Files, Personal Files, Photographs, Genealogy and Biography.
Correspondence is arranged by writer in chronological order so as to enable the reader to follow the development of each character and to keep the web of his or her connections clear. In addition to correspondence between family members, there are also letters written by friends or business associates to individual family members. It should be noted that such non-family correspondence is not included for the above-mentioned individuals whose papers are filed in separate series.

In the mid-nineteenth century, when this correspondence begins, the Beers, DePues and Pows, were settled in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Michigan and Iowa. Since almost all were engaged in agriculture, their letters reveal a detailed picture of early farm life in this region. The correspondence among the Baldwin men in the 1850s and 1860s is full of discussion of land grants, moving west, borrowing money, and the prices of produce and stock. Social historians may find the practical details of farming methods, care of cattle, fencing land, and curing of meat of some interest.

At the same time, the letters exchanged among the women of the family form a counterpart to the men's in their discussion of their housewifery and their ways of coping with the ever present problems of illness, childbearing, childlessness and death. Since the women were responsible for preserving the food on these farms, many of their letters contain directions for drying fruit or preserving and pickling produce. One couple, the DePues, set out on their marriage to farm new land in Michigan and their letters tell how they built a temporary log cabin and how they went about clearing and farming their land.

Sickness was prevalent and home doctoring, heroic doses of blistering, mustard plasters and purgatives, and the indiscriminate borrowing of medicines were a common practice. Accounts of childhood diseases, typhoid fever, and even of cholera appear regularly, and remedies are traded as readily as recipes for apple butter. But sickness did not always awaken compassion. A letter from Harriet Pow, dated 29 March 1880, describes one town's reaction to a family with scarlet fever: "They could scarcely hire anyone to help … and with difficulty could get men to carry the coffin.…"

These are church-going and pious families and there are at least two ministers in the family, the Reverend Andrew A. Dinsmore and the Reverend Thomas Beer. Attendance at Sunday services is taken as a matter of course, and the writers frequently mention revival meetings or going to hear a missionary. References to religion appear particularly in the letters of the women, often as they console one another on a death. Alice Boyle, in a different vein, writes during 1861 and 1862 to Linus Caleb Baldwin (whom she married in 1862), exhorting him to become a Christian. Indeed, running through all the letters down through the generation of William Collins Beer are expressions of strong religious belief, frequently and fervently expressed.

The Civil War, although not central in this collection, nevertheless figures in the family history. Nehemiah Scott Baldwin was wounded at the Battle of Chickamauga and the account of this event and its aftermath is given by Linus Caleb Baldwin in his letters of late 1863 and early 1864. Briefer references to the war can be found in the letters of Benjamin Pitney Baldwin, Jr. and Lucius Boyle.

The letters of certain members of the family are so numerous that they offer a sustained view into the character of the writer and his relationship with his correspondents. The correspondence of Judge Thomas Beer, who sat on the bench of the Circuit Court of Ohio from 1885 to 1893, runs from 1871 to within a half year of his death in 1910 and is particularly rewarding. Writing almost every day around the turn of the century, as his children leave home to pursue their educations and careers, he sends them entertaining accounts of their neighbors, of events in Bucyrus, and of the fortunes of their livestock, pets and gardens. Although he spent every weekday in his law office from seven in the morning until five in the evening, he managed, with the help of his family, to run a substantial subsistence farm. The sequence of the seasons and the changing diet is evoked in the recitation of the breakfast and dinner menus in his letters. His views on religion, on education for women, on work, on getting ahead and his relationship to his children emerge through his distinctive, ironical style.

His son, William Collins Beer, was another voluminous letter writer, and his letters to his wife offer a powerful, emotional account of a driven, hard-working lawyer for big business, who demanded and received the devotion of his wife. Following the convention of their time, he and his then fiancee, Martha Ann Alice Baldwin, wrote one another every day during their engagement. After their marriage in 1886, he was frequently away on business trips and once again he wrote with unfailing regularity. His correspondence with his three children, Alice, Thomas and Richard, is full of exhortations to pursue excellence and social advantage.

Mrs. Beer wrote almost as steadily as he, both to him and to their children. In the style of an earlier generation, many of her letters include reports on how many jars of fruit or jelly she had put up that day and on her concerns with the physical management of her household. When they traveled together, as they did frequently, she wrote accounts of their trips in letters to the children.

Much of the correspondence of Thomas Beer, the writer, has been carefully preserved, beginning with letters to his aunts when he was seven years old. There is a steady stream of letters from him to his family during his years at Yale, 1907-1911, which are already touched with the traces of his more mature style. They include amusing accounts of his social and fraternity life, punctuated with explanations and sometimes, apologies for what his father insisted was chronic extravagance. During 1917 and 1918, he wrote his family long letters on his army experiences in the United States and France. His letters from the 1920s, although fewer in number, include several on his travels in Europe.

Richard Cameron Beer, Thomas' younger brother, who served in the United States Consular Service until 1925, also wrote home with impressions of his posts in Bermuda, Canada, Cuba, Hungary and England. During the last decades of his life, when he had taken up writing and painting as a career, he wrote frequently to his sister, Alice Baldwin Beer, revealing in an often telling phrase a disappointed and sardonic man.

The letters from the aunts and uncles in Bucyrus to the three Beer children during the 1890s make particularly entertaining reading. They are full of tales of the household pets, farm mishaps and sometimes drawings to illustrate particularly dramatic events. All the brothers and sisters remained in close touch with one another throughout their lives and the unfolding of their careers and characters can be followed in their correspondence.

Several letters in the papers deserve to be singled out as offering particularly striking vignettes of an event or a character. The earliest is by Matilda Jane Jones (filed with "Miscellaneous family letters"), who in rather uncertain spelling writes to her mother of a visit to Boston in 1851. Describing the wonders of a Boston parlor, she writes: "Then on the side fernent there sot a long thing I believe they call it the Sophia. …"

Less amusing, but equally absorbing is a description of Chicago the day after the great fire in a letter from Robert Beer to Judge Thomas Beer, dated 10 October 1871. The letter includes a street map of the "burnt district" as well as the writer's impressions.

In 1901, Robert Caleb Baldwin, brother of Martha A. A. (Baldwin) Beer, traveled to Manila the long way around from New York. He sailed first for London, then took a ship to Bombay, a train across India, and finally a steamer to Manila. His letters to his sister, in which he describes the sights and events of his journey, run to nearly 150 pages in an eccentric but legible hand.

Some of the correspondence with non-family members also offers in-sights into nineteenth-century life. Two collections of letters written to two of the young women are particularly noteworthy. During the 1850s, Tabitha Mary Dinsmore (later the wife of Judge Thomas Beer), attended the Vermillion Institute, a Presbyterian institution of higher learning in Ohio. In a large number of very frank letters, her fellow students write of their feelings, their romances and their expectations for themselves in the world. Several of the young men describe their efforts to make a career, their attitudes towards women, education and marriage. As they move from place to place trying to find a niche for themselves, they describe in homely detail, the discomforts of stagecoach travel, boarding house life and schoolmastering in small towns of Ohio.

A decade later, Alice Boyle spent two years, 1861-1862, at the Mountain Female Seminary in Pennsylvania. When she left in 1862 to marry Linus Caleb Baldwin, her former classmates wrote to her, again on the themes of marriage, career and religion. Since these were the years of the Civil War, many of the letters contain glancing references to its effect, while some relate more direct experiences. One friend, acting as a nurse in Chester, Pennsylvania, writes on 18 August 1862, "I have realized more fully since I came to Chester the horrors of war. It is awful horrible. Several of my cousins and friends have gone to war since I came home. Alice how hard it is to part with them, but I say go, this rebellion must be crushed out if it causes every hearthstone to mourn … There is scarcely a young man left in some parts of the country. The ladies will have to marry the wounded soldiers I guess, or else remain old maids. I think those who have suffered in their country's cause are all the more deserving of the ladies' favor, don't you?"

In the second section of this series, Sermons of Reverend Thomas Beer, there are a number of pieces written between 1829 and 1869. The Reverend Beer, who was the grandfather of William Collins Beer, is also represented by correspondence in the previous section.

Financial Files, which is generally arranged under the names of individuals, includes bills and receipts for household and business expenses, contracts, deeds, ledgers, insurance and income tax records, bank statements, canceled checks and estate inventories. The financial papers of all family members, including those of individuals whose papers are filed in separate series, are filed in this section. In the case of Alice Baldwin Beer, however, the financial records of her antique textiles business are filed with the rest of her business records.

Personal Files is arranged under the names of individuals and includes such items as diaries, certificates, manuscripts (school essays, poetry, speeches), school notebooks, scrapbooks, autograph albums, legal briefs and opinions, pamphlets on a variety of subjects, theater programs, school catalogs, newspaper clippings, valentines, cards and recipes.

In addition to pictures of individual family members, Photographs also includes pictures of family friends, as well as pictures of Egypt and Europe taken by Alice Baldwin Beer in 1911. It should he noted that there are some photographs of non-family subjects in other series.

Genealogy and Biography includes genealogical charts, military records, biographies and obituaries for the Beer and related families.


The addition to the Beer Family Papers consists of seven and one-half feet of correspondence, writings, photographs, and miscellanea relating to members of the family. Material within the addition dates from 1740-1981, with bulk dates of 1950-1981.

This material is arranged so as to parallel the organization of the initial donation of papers from the Beer Family. Files are arranged in the following series: I. FAMILY: GENERAL 1868-1981, III. THOMAS BEER 1909-1936, IV. ALICE BALDWIN BEER 1740-1981, V. RICHARD CAMERON BEER 1895-1958.
No material was added to Series II and VI.

SERIES I contains additional family correspondence, primarily that of Alice Baldwin Beer. Letters to her mother, Martha A. A. (Baldwin) Beer in 1936 (folder 6), relate impressions of travels in Spain. Alice Beer also corresponded regularly with her cousin, Paul "Dick" Beer of Des Moines, Iowa, from 1941-1967 (folders 13-16). Another family member, Samuel H. Beer, Eaton Professor of the Science of Government at Harvard University and first Thomas P. O'Neill, Jr. Professor of American Politics at Boston College, corresponded with Alice Beer on family matters as well (folder 20).

Financial Files includes correspondence of Martha A. A. Beer regarding various family loans, notes, and taxes (folders 24-25). The correspondence of William C. Beer contains items sent him by Fannie Edgerton, including a certificate of deposit for twelve shares in the Manilla Navigation Company (folder 26).

Personal Files contains a brief account of the childhood of Alice Beer, written in 1979 (folder 28), and a photocopy of a "family newspaper," written in 1895-1896. This journal, "Mustard and Pepper," consists of a variety of verses written by members of the Beer family including one entitled, "Origin of the Thetas," by Judge Thomas Beer for Mary E. Beer at Wooster University (folder 31).

Photographs includes views of Alice Baldwin Beer while in Spain in 1929, and photos of members of the Neighborhood Playhouse in New York (folder 34). Other family members represented in this section include Martha A. A. (Baldwin) Beer, Richard and Doris Beer, and Thomas Beer. Group photographs and negatives of the Beer family on their Nantucket Island property show many family members at leisure (folders 40-42).

Genealogy and Biography contains notes of Alice Beer on various members of the Beer family.

SERIES III consists of a small quantity of correspondence and published writings of Thomas Beer. Correspondence contains letters from Julian Street, Frank Swinerton, and Clement Ward. These men comment on some of Thomas Beer's literary efforts (folder 1).

Published Writings includes printed copies of articles from the Saturday Evening Post and Century Magazine which are absent from the initial donation of papers (folders 2-25).

SERIES IV contains correspondence, writings, speeches, photographs, and miscellaneous files of Alice Baldwin Beer. This series is arranged in two sections: Correspondence and Cooper Union Museum Files. Correspondence is further divided into two sub-sections: Thomas and Richard Beer's Writings and Personal. Alice Beer maintained this filing system as well as the divisions of her correspondence.

Alice Beer was an active figure in the effort to preserve Thomas Beer's place in American literature. She was also a writer, lecturer, and expert on early textiles and print design. Her files reveal a high degree of activity in both pursuits.

Correspondence: Thomas and Richard Beer's Writings includes Alice Beer's correspondence with individuals who knew her brothers, scholars interested in the work of Thomas Beer, libraries which possessed letters of Thomas Beer in their manuscript collections, publishers and journals which printed their works, and Yale University, which received the Beer Family Papers in several installments beginning in 1941. Only five folders relate directly to Richard C. Beer (folders 11-12; 41; 43; 79). These files include biographical and bibliographical data, a sketch of Thomas Beer by Richard C. Beer, and correspondence with prospective publishers of Richard Beer's work.

Material pertaining to the life and writings of Thomas Beer includes several drafts of a biographical essay written by Alice Beer alternatively entitled "This Written Word" and "Recollections of a Writer" (folders 3-10). Although submitted to Atlantic Monthly, this essay was never published. In addition there are sample book jackets, clippings of book reviews and obituaries (folders 16-18), and an essay written by two friends, Cary Abbott and Monty Woolley (folder 22).

Alice Beer also recorded five hour-long cassettes in 1974 (folder 15). These recordings are a monologue by Alice Beer as she reads selected letters that her brother wrote from 1914-1917. Beer offers her personal comments, remembrances, and interpretations of these letters, the majority of which were written in Little Rock, Arkansas (during military training), or in Bourdeaux, France (during World War I). Alice Beer was not an accomplished technician and these tapes are plagued with gaps where no words were recorded. The background noise from her apartment and the constant turning on and off of the recorder are minor distractions. Nonetheless, these tapes do provide a unique insight into the life of Thomas Beer, by one of the people closest to him. These tapes were transferred to the Historical Sound Recordings division of Sterling Memorial Library.

William Coyle's Ph.D. dissertation, "The Short Stories of Thomas Beer" (folders 26-27), is one example of the scholarly research conducted with the Beer papers. Evans Harrington corresponded with Alice Beer on his dissertation, "The Works of Thomas Beer, Appraisal and Bibliography" (folder 42). Alice Beer supported this work and discussed the nature of Mr. Harrington's research with several friends: Malcolm Cowley, Morris Ernst, Harold H. Fisher, Robert Housum, Alfred A. Knopf (Publishers), and Lewis Mumford. Matthew J. Bruccoli also researched topics of interest within the Beer papers (folder 23). Yale University files (folders 72-78) provide further information on the Beer papers. Alice Beer contacted several libraries in order to acquire photocopies of Thomas Beer letters in other collections (folders 50-58). She also oversaw the donation of the Beer Family Papers to Yale University, the alma mater of her brother Thomas. This correspondence (folders 70-78) reveals the many levels of negotiation involved in such a project and, as mentioned, documents much of the early research use of the collection.

Additional correspondence in this section includes files for the law firm of Greenbaum, Wolff, and Ernst, who negotiated the matter of a television series based on the works of Thomas Beer (folders 35-40). Lewis Mumford was a long-time friend and his correspondence is also arranged here (folders 61-62). Robert Housum was another long-time friend who was devoted to both Alice and Thomas Beer (folders 44-45).

Alice Beer's Correspondence-Personal (folders 80-190) includes letters with several friends, some of whom shared her love and admiration of Thomas Beer. Among these individuals are: Harold H. and Helen Fisher, Robert Housum, Alfred A. Knopf, James Rambo, Kurt Schneider, James D. Tilghman, Emerson Tuttle, and Monty Woolley.

Alice Beer also corresponded with local, state and national politicians on a multitude of current topics, ranging from pollution and the environment to Watergate (folder 96). Correspondence with the Hoover Library at Stanford University (folder 124) relates to her efforts to acquire Spanish political propaganda for that institution and includes letters with Harold H. Fisher. Activities on the Massachusetts' island of Nantucket, where the Beer family maintained a summer home, were of deep interest to Alice Beer. Files for the Nantucket Historical Association (folder 143) and the Nantucket Conservation Foundation (folder 144) reflect this concern.

Cooper-Hewitt Museum Files contains the professional papers of Alice Beer. As curator of textiles at the New York City museum she travelled extensively on its behalf, delivered lectures on topics related to textiles, cloth, and print-making, contributed to in-house publications, and researched the history of textiles thoroughly. Her research materials include bibliographies on textiles, fabrics, and embroidery (folder 191), notebooks with information on trips and readings (boxes 169-171), 35 mm. color slides on fabrics, cloth and related subjects (folders 239-242), and photographic re-prints of engravings and artwork from other institutions (folio 1). Additional items arranged here include papers and books written by other professionals on design and related topics. One notable book was published in France in 1740, Traites sur les Toiles Peintes, by an author identified only as M.Q*** (folder 238).

Alice Beer was an active figure in the movement to rescue the Cooper Union Museum, which was the predecessor of the Cooper-Hewitt Museum (folders 194-195.). In 1963 financial difficulties threatened the existence of the Cooper Union Museum. It was not until 1967, when the Smithsonian Institution intervened and proposed the Cooper Hewitt Museum as its national center for design (and the first center located outside Washington D.C.), that the fate of the museum and its holdings was determined.

One major project of Alice Beer's was a biographical essay on Calvin S. Hathaway who served as director of the Cooper Union Museum and was a close associate (folders 202-206). The Smithsonian Institution recognized Alice Beer's distinguished service in 1978 when it presented a thirty-year certificate to her.

SERIES V contains Correspondence, Unpublished Writings, and Personal Files for Richard C. Beer. Correspondence includes two letters from publishers rejecting articles. Unpublished Writings is a section of eleven manuscripts for unpublished articles (folders 2-12), many of which were set in a seaside locale. Personal Files includes the artwork and illustrations of Doris and Richard Beer. Water color sketches (folder 13), pencil sketches (folder 14) and book illustrations (folders 15; 18) are arranged here.

The Beer Family Papers Addition was donated to Yale University in 1982, from the estate of Alice Beer.


  • 1740-1981
  • Majority of material found within 1827 - 1981


Conditions Governing Access

The materials are open for research.

Conditions Governing Use

Copyright to the unpublished materials authored or created by William Collins Beer, Thomas Beer, and Linus Caleb Beer is in the public domain. Copyright status for the unpublished materials authored or created by Alice Baldwin Beer and Richard Cameron Beer and for other collection materials is unknown. Transmission or reproduction of materials protected by U.S. Copyright Law (Title 17, U.S.C.) beyond that allowed by fair use requires the written permission of the copyright owners. Works not in the public domain cannot be commercially exploited without permission of the copyright owners. Responsibility for any use rests exclusively with the user.

Immediate Source of Acquisition

Gifts from Alice B. Beer, 1947-1979, and from her estate, 1982; gifts from Mary Beer, 1958, 1972; gifts from Robert Housum, 1974.


Arranged in seven series: I. Family: General, 1851-1969. II. William Collins Beer, 1880-1917. III. Thomas Beer, 1897-1947. IV. Alice Baldwin Beer, 1896-1969. V. Richard Cameron Beer, 1901-1959. VI. Linus Caleb Baldwin, 1856-1910. VII. Beer Family Papers (1982 July Addition), 1740-1981.


75.5 Linear Feet

Language of Materials


Catalog Record

A record for this collection is available in Orbis, the Yale University Library catalog

Persistent URL


The papers consist of correspondence, writings, photographs, printed material, and other papers documenting the personal lives and professional careers of the Beer family. Extensive files of correspondence and papers for family members from the 1850s through the 1980s detail the lives and activities of such family members as William Collins Beer, a lobbyist for J.P. Morgan and Company, International Harvester Company, and the government of Italy, and a close friend of Mark Hanna; Thomas Beer, a prominent American author of novels, short stories, and articles; and Richard C. Beer, a foreign service employee stationed in Hungary during the 1920s.

Biographical / Historical


William Collins Beer was born in Bucyrus, Ohio, 23 January 1863, the son of Thomas and Tabitha Mary (Dinsmore) Beer. He was educated in local schools before entering the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1880. Resigning from the Academy in 1882, he traveled West to Council Bluffs, Iowa, where he found employment in the Officer and Pusey Bank. On his own time, he studied law with his uncle, Judge Thomas Reed. In 1885, he accepted a position as teller in the Omaha National Bank, where he remained until 1889.

On 19 May 1886, he married Martha Ann Alice Baldwin, daughter of Linus Caleb and Alice (Boyle) Baldwin of Council Bluffs. They had three children, Alice Baldwin, born in 1887, Thomas, born in 1888, and Richard Cameron, born in 1893. Beer left the Omaha bank to become general western agent of the Fidelity and Casualty Company of New York. At the same time, he served as an agent of The Bankers Life Association. In 1891, he joined the Missouri Kansas, and Texas Trust Company as general manager. When this company merged with the National Surety Company in 1897, he became its eastern manager.

Around 1893, after two years' residence in St. Paul, Minnesota, Beer moved his family to Yonkers, New York, where he remained until his death. His active participation in the McKinley campaign of 1896 resulted in his employment as a political observer for the New York Life Insurance Company and for J. P. Morgan and Company. His association with New York Life was particularly important and lasted until his death. In 1898, he became an attorney and executive officer of the company.

He also became involved in a number of private business speculations. The American takeover of the Philippines in 1898 opened new opportunities for investment. Beer became treasurer of the newly formed Manila Navigation Company. This company, which transported cargoes within the Philippines, failed in 1910 after years of internal disputes among its directors. He also seems to have had some connection with McCord, Dinsmore and Company, an investment firm founded by a cousin, W. A. Dinsmore.

In 1902, he became president of the International Fire Engine Company, which established the basis of its business in Cuba. Over the years, he became involved with a number of businesses in Central and South America, including American Rapid Boat Company (1905), Cuban Central Railway (1912), The Safety Car Heating and Lighting Company (1913) and Latin-American Car and Coast Lighting Company (1915). He also lobbied in Washington for the promotion of American business interests in the Dominican Republic (1910), Ecuador (1911) and Mexico (1912).

After the turn of the century, his career as a political observer and lobbyist became increasingly important. In 1903, he gave up all his business interests not connected with Morgan or New York Life, except those in the Manila Navigation Company and the International Fire Engine Company. It was at this time that he resigned as a vice-president of the White Mountain Paper Company. Meanwhile, he acted as a negotiator for the Morgan interests in the settlement of the coal strike of 1902. The following year he participated in the futile attempt to patch up the split between the Mark Hanna and Joseph Foraker factions in the Ohio Republican Party. He also served as an active lobbyist for President Roosevelt's Newlands Act and for the Panama Canal project.

Within a few years after 1903, Beer represented a number of companies as a lobbyist or as attorney, including International Harvester Company of America, The United States Fidelity and Guaranty Company and Wells Fargo and Company. He acted as a special attorney for Wells Fargo in its fight to oppose the institution of rural free delivery by the Post Office.

In 1910, he became a lobbyist for the Fruit Importers' Union, a group of Sicilians in New York, who sought to eliminate the prohibitive tariff on lemons. The union won a hard fought battle against the California Fruit Growers' Association, after three years of political maneuvering. During the course of this conflict, Beer was instrumental in establishing the National Italian Democratic League as a means of consolidating the Italian vote. He was rewarded for his efforts with a commendation from the Italian government and in 1914, he was appointed general counsel for the Italian embassy in Washington.

In 1913, he pursued his varied business interests on an extended trip to Europe. He was particularly interested in the establishment of a steamship line to operate between India, Sicily and the United States, but nothing came of the idea. He took advantage of his reputation in Italy to encourage exports to the United States, and he seems to have been involved in an abortive scheme to settle Sicilians in the Dominican Republic to cultivate coffee.

On his return to the United States in 1914, Beer, who had changed his political affiliation, took an active part in the campaign of Oscar W. Underwood for an Alabama Senate seat. He continued to pursue his business interests in Central and South America and by 1915, he had taken some tentative steps towards becoming a dealer in armaments.

During the late summer of 1916, he suffered a physical collapse brought on by the strain of overwork, and he traveled to his summer house on Nantucket to recuperate. He had been in failing health for several years, and his refusal to limit his activities took its toll. He died at Siasconset on Nantucket, 8 October 1916.

For additional biographical information, see Personal Files and "Patchwork," a reminiscence by Alice Baldwin Beer, filed under THOMAS BEER, immediately preceding Correspondence.

The material in this series is arranged in three sections: Correspondence, Information Files, and Personal Files

Beer's wide ranging business interests and political activities are reflected in Correspondence. Incoming letters, along with many copies of his outgoing letters are arranged chronologically, allowing the reader to follow the developments in his career. Although the bulk of the correspondence is with businessmen, politicians and government officials whose names are unfamiliar, there are some correspondents of note, including Albert J. Beveridge, George B. Cortelyou, Charles G. Dawes, Chauncey M. Depew, Joseph Benson Foraker, Marcus A. Hanna, William G. McAdoo, Thomas Nelson Page, George W. Perkins and Oscar W. Underwood. In addition, there is a substantial file of business correspondence of the New York Life Insurance Company between 1902 and 1907. A partial index to the correspondence indicates the more important correspondents, their business or political affiliations, and the years in which their letters appear.

Information Files contains material which relates directly to Beer's professional activities and includes campaign literature, Congressional bills, reports, resolutions and speeches, legal agreements, legal briefs, miscellaneous printed material, biographical information on business associates, and business prospectuses.

Personal Files contains a variety of materials relating to Beer's personal life, including an address book, certificates, miscellaneous manuscripts, photographs of friends and associates, school notebooks and memorabilia, a scrapbook of European travels, and biographical information.


Thomas Beer was born in Council Bluffs, Iowa, 22 November 1888, the son of William Collins and Martha Ann Alice (Baldwin) Beer. His family settled in Yonkers, New York when he was about four years old. He was educated in the Yonkers public schools and at MacKenzie School in Dobbs Ferry before entering Yale College as a member of the Class of 1911. At his father's insistence, after graduation from Yale he began the study of law at Columbia University, while working part time in his father's office. But his interests lay neither in business nor in the law, and although he studied at Columbia for several years, he never received a law degree. After his father's death in 1916, he abandoned the business world to begin his career as a writer.

While at Yale, Beer had published numerous short stories and poems in The Yale Literary Magazine. After college, he continued to write, although he published nothing until 1917, when his short story, "The Brothers," appeared in Century. Soon afterwards, he volunteered for military service and entered the army as a private in the Field Artillery. After being promoted to first lieutenant, he served six months in France in 1918 on the staff of the 87th Division. He published several more stories before the war was over, and by the time his first novel, The Fair Rewards, appeared in 1922, he had published numerous short stories, articles and book reviews.

His literary reputation was established with the publication of his second book, Stephen Crane, in 1923. The techniques he employed in this book and in two later works, The Mauve Decade (1926) and Hanna (1929), earned him a place in the history of American letters. In these impressionistic narratives of the last decade of the nineteenth century, Beer was concerned less with the mundane details of the lives of his subjects than with the atmosphere in which they lived and worked. He was credited, along with Lytton Strachey, with "… having a profound influence in shaping the contemporary approach to biography and history." (New York Herald Tribune, 19 April 1940).

In addition, he wrote two more novels during the 1920s, Sandoval (1924) and The Road to Heaven (1928). Altogether, between 1917 and 1936, he published more than fifty short stories, mostly in The Saturday Evening Post, over thirty articles, mostly commentaries on the contemporary scene, and numerous book reviews. He also wrote about fifteen plays and movie scenarios. His papers contain manuscripts of at least seven unfinished novels and of over seventy short stories and articles in various stages of completion.

In 1935, his health began to deteriorate and in 1937, he spent some time in a private clinic undergoing treatment for physical and nervous exhaustion. After 1935, he published very little, although at the time of his death he was working on a study of the influence of color on human life, to be titled, Form, Color and Desire. He died of a heart attack in New York City, 18 April 1940.

Additional biographical information on Thomas Beer may be found in the reminiscences of his family and friends, filed in Personal Files; in "Patchwork" a reminiscence by Alice Baldwin Beer, filed immediately preceding Correspondence; and in "The Work of Thomas Beer: Appraisal and Bibliography," a dissertation by E. B. Harrington, filed at the beginning of Published Writings. The correspondence between Alice Baldwin Beer and some of her brother's friends after his death may provide biographical information, also. This correspondence is filed in ALICE BALDWIN BEER.

The material in this series is arranged in four sections: Correspondence, Published Writings, Unpublished Writings, and Personal Files.

Although Thomas Beer corresponded with many literary figures, the Correspondencesection is small, owing to his haphazard method of preserving letters. The scope of his correspondence is evident, however, from the letters which remain. Among his notable correspondents are: Frederick Lewis Allen, Ernest Boyd, Van Wyck Brooks, James Branch Cabell, Joseph Conrad, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Alfred A. Knopf, H. L. Mencken, Lewis Mumford, Frank Swinnerton, Booth Tarkington, Edmund Wilson and Monty Woolley.

Published Writings contains research notes and correspondence (especially for Stephen Crane), drafts, printers' proofs, publicity and reviews of his books. In addition, there are drafts and/or published copies of his short stories, articles, book reviews and poems. Finally, there are several hundred letters from readers.

Unpublished Writingscontains drafts of books, short stories, articles, book reviews, plays and movie scenarios, and compositions from his childhood and adolescent years.

Personal Files contains various items, including an address book, certificates, drawings, school notebooks, schedules, grades and memorabilia, juvenilia, memorabilia from trips, pocket diaries and biographical information. Copies of Beer's published books are stored in a Paige box filed at the end of the papers.


Alice Baldwin Beer was born in Council Bluffs, Iowa, in 1887, the daughter of William Collins and Martha Ann Alice (Baldwin) Beer. She was educated in Yonkers, New York, where her family settled when she was a young child, and she graduated from Vassar College in 1910. In 1910 and 1911, she spent six months traveling in Egypt and Europe with her mother. She taught English in a private school in 1912-1913, then spent the next few years working in the technical side of amateur theatricals. During WWI, she worked for War Camp Community Service staging and disseminating information on patriotic pageants. In 1919, she joined the staff of The Neighborhood Playhouse in New York, which was run by Alice and Irene Lewisohn, where she remained until 1927. In 1928 or 1929, she started her own business buying and selling antique textiles. She closed this business in 1944 and later accepted a position on the staff of the Cooper Union Museum in New York.

After the death of her brother, Thomas, in 1940, she spent a great deal of time gathering reminiscences of him and collecting his scattered papers. She also corresponded with his publishers and collected manuscripts for inclusion in a posthumous volume of his short stories.

Additional biographical information on Alice Baldwin Beer may be found in Personal Files and in "Patchwork" her reminiscences of her family life, which is filed under THOMAS BEER immediately preceding Correspondence.

The material in this series is arranged in three sections: Correspondence, Antique Textiles Business, and Personal Files.

Correspondence is a relatively small section and limited in scope. With less than nine hundred letters, many of which concern the affairs of Thomas Beer, it is difficult to extract the full dimensions of Alice Baldwin Beer's character. Most of her business letters are filed under Antique Textiles Business, although there is some overlapping between personal and business correspondence.

Antique Textiles Business includes business correspondence, financial records, stock inventories and reference material.

Personal Files includes such items as certificates, diaries, travel notes, memorabilia from European trips (see, FAMILY: GENERAL, Photographsfor a photographic album of her 1911 trip to Europe and Egypt), Vassar College memorabilia and biographical information.


Richard Cameron Beer was born in Yonkers, New York, 8 October 1893, the son of William Collins and Martha Ann Alice (Baldwin) Beer. He studied at Mackenzie School in Dobbs Ferry, Princeton and Hamilton College. He also spent a year studying for the foreign service at George Washington University in 1914-1915. On 13 May 1915, he married Elizabeth Thompson. They had one daughter, Gloria Katherine, born in 1917, and were divorced in 1920.

From 1917 to 1925, he served in the United States Consular Service. He was posted as vice consul to Nassau, Ottawa, Havana, Budapest and several places in Great Britain. In 1925, he returned to the United States.

In 1934, he married Doris Riker, a painter who worked in theater. Writing had always interested him he had published a couple of pieces of fiction in previous years and during the 1930s, he began to publish articles on art. In 1937, he and his wife settled on Nantucket and opened an art studio. He took up painting and continued to write, mostly articles on the history of Nantucket. During the 1940s and 1950s, his health deteriorated due to a combination of diabetes and heart disease and he died in 1959.

For additional biographical information, consult Personal Files and "Patchwork," a reminiscence by Alice Baldwin Beer, filed under THOMAS BEER immediately preceding Correspondence.

The material in this series is arranged in four sections: Correspondence, Published Writings, Unpublished Writings, and Personal Files.

The small Correspondence section contains letters relating to his work in the Consular Service, for the most part, with the remainder concerning publication of his writings.

Both Published Writings and Unpublished Writings contain research material, notes, drafts and printed versions of his short stories and articles.

Personal Files includes items such as certificates, diplomatic credentials, school work, juvenilia, miscellaneous memorabilia, a scrapbook and biographical information.


Linus Caleb Baldwin was born in Youngstown, Ohio, 2 June 1831, the son of Benjamin Pitney and Martha (Pauley) Baldwin. He received a basic education in the local schools and in 1855, he left home to seek his fortune in the west. After spending three years in Council Bluffs, Iowa, he returned east and settled in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, where he engaged in business. On 1 October 1862, he married Alice Boyle of Bellevernon, Pennsylvania. They had three children, Martha Ann Alice, Robert Caleb and Helen McCormick.

In 1879, Baldwin returned with his family to Council Bluffs. He engaged in cattle ranching and breeding there and in Wyoming, and was, for a number of years, a director of the Iowa State Agricultural Society. He died in Council Bluffs in 1910.

The material in this series is arranged in two sections: Correspondence and Personal Files.

Most of the Correspondence deals with business matters and with the daily operations of his ranches. The letters in this section give a good picture of the life of a cattleman during the late nineteenth century and are especially evocative of the hardships caused by economic depression. Baldwin's financial papers, which may add depth to this picture, are filed in FAMILY: GENERAL.

Personal Files contains material relating to ranching, juvenilia, miscellaneous memorabilia and biographical information.

For charts outlining the genealogical relations of the Beer, Baldwin, and Boyle families, please consult theGenealogical Charts.


The following index includes the names of many of Beer's business and political associates. The dates which follow their names indicate the years in which the bulk of their correspondence is found. In some cases, additional information concerning their political or business associations is enclosed in parentheses following their names.
  1. Alexander, Charles B.1912-1913
  2. Alger, Russell A.1896, 1899
  3. Andrews, Amador (Wells Fargo)1893-1895, 1899, 1905
  4. Babbitt, Edwin B.1882-1884, 1896-1897, 1901-1916
  5. Baldwin, Robert Caleb (Manila Navigation Company)1898, 1901-1903
  6. Bancroft, Edgar A. (International Harvester Company of America)1914-1915
  7. Bankhead, John H.1912-1914
  8. Barnes, R. (munitions)1915
  9. Bellinger, John B. (Manila Navigation Company)1896, 1902-1906
  10. Beveridge, Albert Jeremiah1900, 1902, 1905
  11. Boynton, Charles A.1906
  12. Bristow, J. L. (Post Office Department)1902-1904
  13. Broch, Leon (Cuba, New York Life Insurance Company)1913, 1915-1916
  14. Bryan, Charles Page1900
  15. Calhoun, J. F.1894-1896, 1900-1901, 1903, 1906-1907
  16. Cellere, Macchi, comte di1914-1915
  17. Chance, W. S.1902
  18. Cheney, Benjamin P.1895-1900, 1902-1903, 1910
  19. Claggett, L. B. Keene (Dominican Republic)1910-1915
  20. Clark, Champ (James Beauchamp)1910
  21. Clark, J. Reuben, Jr.1915
  22. Clarkson, J. S. (United States Customs)1908, 1914-1915
  23. Conroy, A. J. (Domincan Republic)1913-1916
  24. Cortelyou, George B.1900-1910
  25. Cragin, Edward F.1913-1914
  26. Cuba/See: R. M. Dixon, John G. Gray, Charles Neilson, John J. Morey, W. M. Talbott, Jackson Tinker, Cosme de la Torriente, W. Lawrence Young
  27. Curtis, Charles1909-1911
  28. Dawes, Charles G.1897, 1899, 1901, 1907, 1909, 1911
  29. Dean, Charles A. (Missouri, Kansas, and Texas Trust Company, National Surety Company)1891, 1896, 1898
  30. DeGraw, P. V. (4th Assistant Postmaster General)1905-1908, 1910-1914,
  31. Depew, Chauncey M.1902-1903
  32. Dinsmore, William A. (Manila Navigation Company; McCord, Dinsmore and Company)1895-1897, 1899, 1901, 1903-1907, 1910-1916
  33. Dixon, R. M. (The Safety Car Heating and Lighting Company)1913-1916
  34. Dominican Republic./See: L. B., Keene Claggett, A. J. Conroy, Samuel M. Jarvis, Robert Logie, Frank McIntyre, Frank J. R. Mitchell, Charles Neilson, James M.,Sullivan
  35. Dominici, G. (lemons)1911, 1914-1916
  36. Dryden, John, T.1906
  37. Dudley, Philip E. (Manila Navigation Company)1902-1905
  38. Durstine, Lee B. (New York Life Insurance Company)1903-1911, 1913-1914
  39. Evans, Dudley (Wells Fargo)1908-1909
  40. Fleming, Harvey1908-1913,
  41. Foraker, Joseph Benson1903, 1905-1906, 1908-1911
  42. Funk, C. S. (International Harvester Company of America)1906-1916
  43. Gillette, Cassius E. (Mexico)1912-1913, 1915-1916
  44. Gilliland, George E. (lemons)1901-1903, 1905-1908, 1910-1912
  45. Glynn, Martin H.1903-1914
  46. Gray, John G. (Cuba)1913-1916
  47. Greefkins, J. H. (Manila Navigation Company)1902-1903
  48. Hahn, W. M. (Republican National Committee)1896
  49. Hall, E. Fermor (Fidelity and Casualty Company of New York)1889-1890
  50. Hanna, Marcus A.,1896, 1898-1902
  51. Harris, A. H. (Canadian Pacific Railroad Company)1912
  52. Hay, John1901, 1903
  53. Heimke, William1915-1916
  54. Hinman, George W.1908, 1910, 1912
  55. Hubbard, Walter S. (International Harvester Company of America)1912-1913
  56. Huff, Salisbury1913-1915
  57. Jarvis, Samuel M. (Dominican Republic, lemons)1912-1913
  58. Keating, Charles H.1908-1909
  59. Kingsley, Darwin P. (New York Life Insurance Company)1901-1902, 1905-1907, 1909-1915
  60. Legge, Alexander (International Harvester Company of America)1915
  61. Lemons./See: last entry in this index
  62. Loft, George W.1916
  63. Logie, Alexander (Canadian Pacific Railroad Company)1911-1912
  64. Logie, Robert (Canadian Pacific Railroad Company, Dominican Republic)1911-1915
  65. LoMedico, Joseph N. (lemons)1913-1914
  66. Long, Chester I.1902-1903,
  67. McAdoo, William Gibbs1913
  68. Macari, A.1913-1915
  69. McCall, John A. (New York Life Insurance Company)1899-1904
  70. McCall, Leo (New York Life Insurance Company)1912-1916
  71. McConnochie, James (Manila Navigation Company)1914
  72. McCook, John J.1898-1899, 1901-1903, 1905-1911
  73. McIntyre, Frank (Dominican Republic)1913
  74. Mackenzie, Cameron (lemons)1911-1913
  75. McKinley, Abner1898-1899, 1901-1903
  76. McKinley, William1896
  77. McNulty, P. J.1906-1908, 1910-1911, 1915
  78. Maher, George W.1901, 1905-1915
  79. Manila Navigation Company./See: Robert Caleb Baldwin, John J. Bellinger, William A. Dinsmore, Philip E. Dudley, J. H. Greefkins, James F. McConnochie, Charles H. Treat
  80. Manson, Philip1914, 1916
  81. Mason, John H. (Lemons)1910-1912
  82. Mercandante, Bernardo (lemons)1914-1915
  83. Michael, William H1901-1906
  84. Millard, Joseph Hopkins1896-1897, 1899-1907, 1909-1912
  85. Mitchell, Frank J. R. (Dominican Republic)1913
  86. Montgomery, Benjamin F.1901-1904, 1906, 1908, 1910
  87. Montgomery, F.B. (International Harvester Company of America)1912-1916
  88. Mooney, R. J.,1907-1908, 1910
  89. Moore, John Bassett1913, 1915
  90. Morey, John J. (Cuba)1913-1915
  91. Moriarty, S. F. (American Rapid Boat Company)1905-1906
  92. Mosca, Tommaso1914
  93. Mullins, W. H. (American Rapid Boat Company)1905-1906, 1908
  94. Neilson, Charles (The Safety Car Heating and Lighting Company, Dominican Republic)1913-1914
  95. Osborne, Harrison (lemons)1910-1916
  96. Osterheld, Theodore W. (lemons)1912-1913
  97. Page, Thomas Nelson1914
  98. Palmer, Charles Day1884, 1895-1896, 1911
  99. Palmer, Frederick L.1882, 1890
  100. Pepperman, W. Leon (Ass't. Chief, Isthmian Canal Affairs)1905-1907
  101. Perkins, George W.,1899, 1902-1906, 1908-1909, 1911, 1914-1915
  102. Pickford, A. J.1913
  103. Platt, Thomas Collier1905, 1907
  104. Reid, John W.1900-1905
  105. Richards, William M. (Fidelity and Casualty Company of New. York)1889-1891
  106. Roosevelt, Theodore1903
  107. Root, Elihu1911
  108. Rosen, Baron1910-1912, 1915-1916
  109. Sanderson, George A.1915-1916
  110. Schlobohm, William A. (lemons)1914-1916
  111. Simpson, SS (Panama Canal)1912-1913, 1916
  112. Smith, Joseph P.1896-1897
  113. Smoot, Reed1904, 1906-1907, 1909-1911
  114. Stedman, Emory A. (Wells Fargo)1903, 1905-1913, 1915-1916
  115. Stewart, Alonzo Hopkins1909-1911, 1913-1915
  116. Stillwell, A. E.1898
  117. Stubbs, David T.1890, 1893, 1896-1897
  118. Styer, Henry D.1882-1883, 1885, 1887, 1890-1891, 1893-1894,1899, 1909, 1911
  119. Sullivan James M. (Dominican Republic)1913-1915
  120. Symington, T. H. (munitions)1915
  121. Talbott, W. M. (Cuba)1912
  122. Thompson, David E. (Mexico)1904-1906, 1908-1910
  123. Tinker, Jackson (Cuba)1913
  124. Torriente, Cosme de la (Cuba)1910-1916
  125. Treat, Charles H. (Manila Navigation Company)1901-1903,1905-1909
  126. Underwood, Oscar W.1911-1916
  127. Valentine, John J. (Wells Fargo)1889,1895, 1900
  128. Warfield, Edwin (Fidelity and Deposit Company of Maryland)1896, [1909]
  129. Wheeler, John N.1912-1913
  130. Whiting, Julius, Jr.1896-1900, 1902, 1905, 1907-1910, 1913-1914, 1916
  131. Wills, A. W. (munitions)1915-1916
  132. Wilson, Huntington1910
  133. Yaselli, Emilio (lemons)1912-1916
  134. Yerkes, John W.1901,1904
  135. Young, Sir William Lawrence (Cuba)1912-1915
  136. Lemons./See: G. Dominici, George E. Gilliland, Samuel M. Jarvis, Joseph N. LoMedico, Cameron Mackenzie, John H. Mason, Bernardo Mercandante, Harrison Osborne, Theodore W. Osterheld, William A. Schlobohm, Oscar W. Underwood, Emilio Yaselli
Guide to the Beer Family Papers
Under Revision
compiled by Ruth Gay and Linda Wrigley
July 1975
Description rules
Finding Aid Created In Accordance With Manuscripts And Archives Processing Manual
Language of description note
Finding aid written in English.

Part of the Manuscripts and Archives Repository

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