PART ONE: EARLY YEARS, WORLD WAR II SERVICE, YALE 1925-1949
Series I, EARLY YEARS, contains the few items in the papers from Reid's childhood, including two notes from President Hoover inquiring about Reid's health and several school notebooks and essays written while Reid was a student at Deerfield Academy.
Series II, WORLD WAR II SERVICE, is subdivided into three sections:Correspondence,Orders, andPublic Relations Work. The series documents Reid's activities as a public relations officer for the Eleventh Airborne Division in occupied Japan. Included in this series are copies of servicemen's newspapers; a run ofShin-Iwato-Nippo(1945-1946), the first English language newspaper published in post-war Japan; and copies of the newstories Reid wrote for theHerald Tribune(1945-1946).
Series III, STUDENT DAYS AT YALE, is a miscellaneous collection of class notebooks, essays, examinations, and a copy of Reid's senior thesis on lobbying, "Responsible Pressure Groups."
For photographs of this period, see Part Four, Series XVII.
PART TWO: HERALD TRIBUNE 1950-1958
The six series of Part Two relate to Reid's years with theNew York Herald Tribune: as a reporter (1950-1951); columnist (1951-1952); in various departments, e.g., circulation, mechanical, advertising, accounting (1952-1953); president of the Paris edition of theHerald Tribune(1954-1955); vice-president of theNew York Herald Tribune(1954-1955); and president and editor of theHerald Tribune(1955-1958). The materials also document Reid's contributions to a variety of civic and cultural groups, as well as his role as a member of the board of directors of Loews, Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company, and the Panama Canal Company.
The materials reflect Reid's struggle to place theHerald Tribuneon a sound financial basis; the political role of theHerald Tribuneas a moderate Republican newspaper; the paper's measured response to a variety of pressure groups (notably those of the political right); and the reaction of the paper to McCarthyism.
The materials composing Part Two are also an important source for the day-to-day history of one of the nation's leading daily newspapers during the 1950s. Part Two is divided into six series:
- Series I: CORRESPONDENCE AND SUBJECT FILES 1951-1954
- Series II: SELECTED CORRESPONDENCE AND SUBJECT FILES 1955-1958
- Series III: GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE 1955-1958
- Series IV: FISCAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE RECORDS
- Series V: LOEWS, MASSACHUSETTS MUTUAL, PANAMA CANAL CO.
- Series VI: WRITINGS AND SPEECHES
Series I, CORRESPONDENCE AND SUBJECT FILES, is divided into two sections: 1) Correspondence and Subject Files, 1951-1953, and 2) Correspondence and Subject Files, 1953-1954. Section one contains materials covering Reid's early years with theTribune. Of particular interest are the Herbert Philbrick correspondence discussing communist subversion; the file of reader comments on Reid's column, "The Red Underground"; and the file labelled "reader reactions" containing responses to theHerald Tribune'scriticism of Senator Joseph McCarthy. Section two contains material which relates primarily to Reid's routine administrative and social functions while serving in Paris and as president of theNew York Herald Tribune, S.A.
Series II, SELECTED CORRESPONDENCE AND SUBJECT FILES, 1955-1958, contains the files created by Reid during his tenure as president and editor of theHerald Tribune. Correspondents of note include:
- Mead Alcorn
- Sylvan Barnet (asst. to president of Tribune)
- Barney G. Cameron (VP and business manager of Tribune)
- Dwight D. Eisenhower
- J. Edgar Hoover
- John Reagan "Tex" McCrary
- William J. Miller (chief editorial writer, Tribune)
- Richard M. Nixon
- Herbert Philbrick
- Nelson A. Rockefeller
- Frank L. Taylor (executive VP, Tribune)
- John Hay Whitney
For discussion of the day-to-day business and journalistic affairs of theHerald Tribune, see especially the following correspondents: Sylvan Barnet, Barney G. Cameron, George Cornish, Hy Gardner, John Reagan "Tex" McCrary, A.V. Miller, William J. Miller, Herbert Philbrick, Frank L. Taylor, and John Hay Whitney. William J. Miller's correspondence is especially valuable for its articulation of the editorial policies of theHerald Tribune. John Hay Whitney's letters regarding his investment in theHerald Tribuneare of interest for their discussion of the paper's financial and management policies.
For material relating to theHerald Tribune's political role and Republican politics in general, see especially the following: Meade Alcorn, Dean Alfange, Dwight Eisenhower, Richard M. Nixon, and Nelson Rockefeller. The Alcorn correspondence discusses ways in which theHerald Tribunecould assist the Republican National Committee. Dean Alfange's file contains a memo entitled, "Some Suggestions for the Republican Party," which elaborates a plan for disseminating the party's philosophy. Eisenhower's correspondence with Reid concerns expressions of gratitude for Reid's editorial support.
Similarly, the Nixon-Reid correspondence primarily expresses Nixon's thanks for Reid's support. Other items relating to Nixon that are of interest include: a memo from Frank L. Taylor (executive VP,Herald Tribune) to Reid agreeing to watch for opportunities to get Nixon into the news; Nixon's thanks to Reid for helping him out on his 1956 nomination acceptance speech; and a letter from Reid to Nixon recommending that Henry Kissinger and others form a group of prominent citizens to advise the administration on foreign policy. For further comments on Nixon, see the correspondence of John Hay Whitney.
Like the Eisenhower and Nixon letters, the Rockefeller correspondence primarily involves expressions of gratitude for theHerald Tribune's support, especially during Rockefeller's successful bid for the New York governorship in 1958. Of interest in the Republican Congressional Committee's file is a 1956 Republican speech kit. The file of the Republican Finance Committee contains a copy of the "Manhattan Plan" for financing and rejuvenating the Republican organization in New York City.
The 1950s witnessed a proliferation of right wing anti-communist groups, and Series II contains numerous files of newsletters and correspondence from such groups. These materials reflect the efforts of these groups to publicize their programs, their attempts to advise theHerald Tribuneon how it could best aid in the fight against communism, and their occasional criticism of the paper's editorial stance (especially theTribune's criticism of Senator Joseph McCarthy). Also of interest in this regard are the correspondence and memoranda ofTribunecolumnist Herbert Philbrick, the former FBI agent, who had successfully infiltrated the American Communist Party. For materials relating to anti-communist groups, see the following files in particular:
- The Alliance Inc. (see Archibald Roosevelt)
- The American Legion
- Aware, Inc.
- American Committee for Liberation from Bolshevism
- American-Jewish League against Communism (see also Arthur Kohlberg)
- Committee of One Million against the Admission of Communist China to the U.N.
- The Orlando Committee
- Sons of the American Revolution
- USA Publishing Co. (see Alice Wickner)
Among other materials of interest in Series II are J. Edgar Hoover's letters to Reid expressing gratitude for the paper's editorial support; Barrett McGunn's (Tribuneforeign correspondent) memorandum on John Santo, who was deported from the U.S. as a subversive alien in 1949 and later attempted to gain asylum in the U.S. in exchange for testimony against Communist Party members; and letters from Golda Meir and Abba Eban thanking Reid for his help in improving U.S.-Israeli relations. Also of interest are the files on Marie Torre (editor of theTribune's T.V. and Radio Magazine) who, when faced with a libel action by Judy Garland, attempted to make an issue of her right as a journalist to protect confidential sources. The file on John Crosby, radio and television columnist for theTribune, contains his criticism of blacklisting in the entertainment industry and his support of Edward R. Murrow's defense of Robert J. Oppenheimer.
Series III, GENERAL CORRESPONDENCE, 1955-1958, relates to the day-to-day activities of Reid and his office staff. The material is primarily of a routine nature, e.g., publicity material sent to Reid by organizations and individuals seeking publicity; social engagement correspondence, and reader complaints.
Series IV, FISCAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE RECORDS, is divided into two sections: 1)Records of the New York Editionand 2)Records of the European Edition. Both sections contain material that is primarily from the period 1955-1958, but some items, as noted, are earlier.
The first section,Records of the New York Edition, contains materials relating to the financial condition and management of the papers. The records reflect management's efforts to increase circulation and advertising by innovations in format. Representative types of records contained in the series are advertising statistics; annual reports (1945-1957); budgets (1954-1958); circulation figures (1931-1958); policy memoranda on format changes; organizational and staffing charts, union and guild contracts; documents relating to the paper's financing; and a run ofWhat's Going On(1954-1957), the staff newsletter.
The second section,Records of the European Edition, while not as complete as the records in section one, is similar in form. The materials reflect the Paris edition's success in increasing advertising revenues and circulation figures. Typical records are advertising statistics; annual meeting reports (1955-1958); auditor reports; budgets; circulation figures; organizational charts; profit and loss statements.
Series V, LOEWS INC., MASSACHUSETTS MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY AND THE PANAMA CANAL COMPANY, contains materials relating to Reid's activities as a member of the board of directors of these corporations. The materials are divided into three sections by company. Section one,Loews, is composed primarily of annual reports (1952-1956); minutes of the Board of Directors meetings (1957); general correspondence; and a series of newspaper clippings on the decision to appoint Reid to the board. Section two,Massachusetts Mutual, is composed primarily of reports of the Board of Directors; general correspondence (1957-1959); and issues of the Radiator (an in-house news publication). Section three,Panama Canal Co.,is composed of materials similar in form to sections one and two; annual reports (1956-1957); Board of Directors meeting agendas, minutes and memoranda (1956-1958); general correspondence; financial statements (1957-1958); and digests of news and editorial opinion from Panamanian newspapers (1956-1958).
Series VI, APPOINTMENT AND ADDRESS BOOKS, 1956-1958, contains brief entries which provide a full calendar of Reid's activities for the years covered.
Series VI, SPEECHES AND WRITINGS, contains copies of two of Reid's publications,The Threat of Red Sabotage(1950) by Reid and Fendall Yerxa andHow Strong is America(1950) by Reid and Robert S. Bird; copies of news-stories with Reid's byline (1950-1952); and approximately thirty speeches delivered between 1945 and 1958. Like his writings, the speeches document Reid's concern with the threat of communism in the United States, Soviet-American relations, and the United States' position as a world power. Other topics include: the role of a free press; the history of theHerald Tribune; the future of journalism in the United States; and the printing industry. For photographs of this period, see Part Four, Series XVII.
PART THREE: ISRAEL AND NEW YORK STATE GOVERNOR'S CABINET 1959-1962
Part Three is composed of materials documenting Reid's service as United States Ambassador to Israel, 1959-1961, and as a member of Governor Nelson Rockefeller's cabinet, 1961-1962.
Series I, ISRAEL, contains two sections:Correspondence and Subject Files, 1959, relating to Reid's appointment as ambassador and his activities in the United States prior to departing for Israel, andCorrespondence and Subject Files, 1959-1961,relating to Reid's activities in Israel. Correspondents of note include Abba Eban, Richard M. Nixon, Dwight D. Eisenhower, J. Edgar Hoover, Christian A. Herter, Bernard M. Baruch, Douglas C. Dillon, Everett M. Dirkson, John Foster Dulles, Lyndon B. Johnson, John F. Kennedy, Clare Boothe Luce, David Ben-Gurion, and Ezra Taft Benson.
Series II, NEW YORK STATE GOVERNOR'S CABINET, contains materials relating to Reid's work as Chairman of the New York State Commission for Human Rights and Chairman of the New York State International Official Visitors Office.
For photographs of this period of Reid's career, see Part Four, Series XVII.
PART FOUR: CONGRESSIONAL PAPERS 1962-1974
Part Four, Congressional Papers, 1962-1974, contains records created during Reid's career as a liberal Republican (Democratic after 1972) representative from New York States' 26th Congressional District (reapportioned in 1972 to form the 24th Congressional District). The papers can be approached from several perspectives. From a biographical point of view the papers document Reid's participation in the legislative process as a committee member and managing bills on the House floor, his interactions with constituents, his involvement in committee hearings and investigations, his relations with federal departments and agencies, and his campaign activities. From the national point of view the papers are a source for documenting the activities of the liberal wing of the Republican Party during the 1960s and early 1970s. In terms of regional and local history, the papers are a source for documenting public opinion, economic growth, and the development of public services in the 26th District (Westchester County).
As a member of the House, Education and Labor Committees' Select Committee on Education, Reid played a role in shaping every major piece of education legislation in the 1960s, notably the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, the 1972 Higher Education Act, the National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities Act of 1965, and the Early Childhood/Quality Day Care Act (vetoed in 1971). On the Government Operations Committee he rose to ranking minority member of the Foreign Operations and Government Information and the Government Activities subcommittees. While serving on the Government Operations Committee he became the principal architect of the Freedom of Information Act of 1968 and was responsible for initiating hearings on land reform and corruption in Vietnam, 1966-1971, the Pentagon Papers (1971), and the Phoenix Program activities in Vietnam (1971).
In March 1972 Reid changed his party registration from Republican to Democrat and was re-elected by his constituents the following November. As a Democrat Reid was assigned to the House Foreign Affairs Committee, Sub-committees on the Near East and South Asia, and Europe and International Organizations and Movements.
Among other areas that Reid took a strong legislative initiative were civil rights, senior citizen programs, and environmental protection. He left office in 1974, to return to private life, at the end of the 93rd Congress.
The records in Part Four are arranged in nineteen series.
- APPOINTMENT BOOKS, DAILY SCHEDULES, CALENDARS
- NEWSLETTERS AND QUESTIONNAIRES
- PUBLIC PAPERS
- PERSONAL CORRESPONDENCE FILES
- HOUSE BILLS
- CORRESPONDENCE INDEX
- DISTRICT PROJECTS
- RESEARCH FILES
- ADMINISTRATIVE RECORDS
- CAMPAIGN FILES
- REQUESTS AND VISITORS
- CONSTITUENT CORRESPONDENCE
- CONSTITUENT CASE FILES
- VOTING RECORD
- BIOGRAPHICAL NEWSPAPER CLIPPINGS
- VOTING RECORD SUMMARIES (microfilm)
- FLOOR REMARKS AND CONGRESSIONAL RECORD INSERTS (microfilm)
The materials in Series I, APPOINTMENT BOOKS, DAILY SCHEDULES, CALENDARS, provide a concise record of Reid's daily activities, 1963-1974. The materials give a good indication of the heavy demands placed on the time of a contemporary member of the House of Representatives.
Series II, NEWSLETTERS AND QUESTIONNAIRES, contains copies of newsletters informing Reid's constituents of his legislative activities and stands on issues. Also included are copies of constituent questionnaires designed to test public opinion on national and local issues. In most cases the tabulated responses are filed with the questionnaires.
Series III, PUBLIC PAPERS, contains copies of Reid's speeches, public statements, and press releases arranged chronologically by session of Congress. Materials for each session are indexed by major subject area, e.g., environment, consumer interest, the economy, foreign affairs. The materials are an important source for documenting Reid's positions on issues, congressional committee investigations which he initiated, and legislation which he drafted or co-sponsored.
Series IV, PERSONAL CORRESPONDENCE FILES, contains five major types of correspondence: Reid's correspondence with eminent citizens and political figures, e.g., Richard M. Nixon, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Lyndon B. Johnson, Jacob Javits, Ralph David Abernathy, and David Ben-Gurion; correspondence relating to political and social service clubs, committees, and organizations, e.g., the Wednesday Group, Members of Congress for Peace through Law, Council on Foreign Relations; correspondence with institutions and organizations which Reid served as board member or trustee, e.g., the Hampton Institute, and Atlantic Council of the United States; requests for Reid to act as a sponsor for a variety of political and social committees and causes; and personal social correspondence. Material are organized in alphabetical runs for each of the following periods: 1963-1967, 1968-1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974.
Series V, HOUSE BILLS, contains copies of public and private bills and House resolutions which Reid drafted or co-sponsored. Arranged chronologically by session of Congress, these materials are an important source for documenting Reid's legislative interests.
Series VI, CORRESPONDENCE INDEX, contains carbon copies of Reid's outgoing letters, arranged in alphabetical runs for each year. This file was developed by Reid's office staff to provide a means of quick access to office correspondence by personal or organizational name. In most cases a duplicate carbon was also filed in the appropriate subject file, e.g., Requests and Visitors, Personal Correspondence, Constituent Correspondence, etc.
Series VII, DISTRICT PROJECTS, is composed of case files documenting Reid's efforts to obtain federal projects and funds for his district and his efforts to cut federal red tape and provide solutions to a variety of regional and local problems, e.g., environmental pollution, transportation, housing, etc. The files are an important source for documenting Reid's effectiveness in dealing with federal departments and agencies on behalf of his district. They are also a source of local history for Reid's district, relating to community development, economic growth, and public services.
Series VIII, RESEARCH FILES, contains background and briefing data compiled by Reid and his staff on matters relating to potential legislation, congressional investigations, and committee work. Subject areas include domestic politics, foreign affairs (notably materials on Reid's investigations of Con Son prison and the Phoenix program in Vietnam), education policy, drug abuse, New York State's economy, anti-poverty programs, the 1960s civil rights movement, and Reid's suit against the New York Telephone Company.
Series IX, ADMINISTRATIVE RECORDS, contains material relating to the administration and staffing of Reid's Washington, D.C. and White Plains offices. Types of records include: sample form letters, personnel data, mail logs, and financial accounts. The records are of interest for the information they provide on the type and size of staff necessary to support the activities of a contemporary Congressman. The mail logs (1964-1968) provide daily statistics on the type and quantity of mail received by Reid's offices.
Series X, CAMPAIGN FILES, contains records relating to Reid's six congressional campaigns, 1962-1972. The materials, organized in sections by year of campaign, include strategy memos, background data on opposition candidates, position papers, demographic and political data on Reid's district, memos on organizing campaign workers, correspondence with local politicians and groups supporting Reid's candidacy, and samples of campaign literature and memorabilia.
Series XI, REQUESTS AND VISITORS, contains a selected sample of one years correspondence (1969) pertaining to routine requests from constituents for such things as copies of legislation and government documents, biographical information on Reid, flags to be flown over the Capital, Library of Congress surplus books, and tourist information on Washington, D.C.
For further data on the volume of this category of mail see the mail log statistics for 1964-1968 in Series IX.
Series XII, RATINGS, contains analyses of Reid's voting record compiled by political and special interest groups. The ratings are based on the groups' position in the political spectrum and on Reid's position towards interests which they represent, e.g., labor, civil rights, the consumer movement, environmental protection, etc. Included are ratings from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Americans for Democratic Action, Americans for Constitutional Action, Farm Bureau, and Ralph Nader's Congress Project.
Series XIII, CONSTITUENT CORRESPONDENCE, is composed of public opinion mail received by Reid's Washington, D.C. and White Plains offices. The letters are arranged chronologically by year (except 1963-1965 which is grouped together), and filed within the year according to the topic, issue, or Congressional committee to which it pertains.
Series XIV, CONSTITUENT CASE FILES, is composed of cases which, broadly defined, are requests by constituents for assistance of a personal nature which required representations or liaison with various federal departments and agencies, and occasionally with state or local governments. Because of the personal, and frequently sensitive, nature of these materials this series is restricted.
Series XV, VOTING RECORD, is composed of materials documenting Reid's legislative votes. The materials are organized in files by bill number and arranged chronologically by session of Congress. Among the types of documentation that may be present for each bill are: drafts and final versions of the bill; a record of how Reid voted, frequently accompanied by an analysis of his vote; correspondence from colleagues and lobbyists; news-items on the bill; and whip notices. For a summary of Reid's voting record see Series XVIII.
Series XVI, BIOGRAPHICAL NEWSPAPER CLIPPINGS, contains articles and editorials from local and national newspapers, either about Reid, or mentioning him in relation to an event, issue, or person. Arranged chronologically by year, the clippings are an excellent source for obtaining an overview and critical comment of activities.
Series XVII, PHOTOGRAPHS, contains photos from all parts of Reid's papers, grouped together for reference and preservation purposes. The series is divided into four sections:Reid Family, containing group and individual photographs of Reid family members, and photographs from Reid's childhood, youth, and World War II service;Herald Tribune, containing photographs of Reid,Tribunestaff members, and political figures such as Dwight D. Eisenhower and Richard M. Nixon;Israelcontaining photographs of official functions and tours taken while Reid was Ambassador to Israel; andCongress, containing photographs of Reid with constituent groups, with other political figures, and participating in campaign and official activities.
Series XVIII, VOTING RECORD SUMMARIES, contains pages from theCongressional Recordshowing how Reid voted on House legislation. This series, which forms a convenient index to Reid's voting record, is arranged chronologically by session of Congress. It has been microfilmed for preservation purposes and is available as Historical Manuscripts Film number
Series XIX, FLOOR STATEMENTS AND CONGRESSIONAL RECORD INSERTS, contains copies of Reid speeches and testimony delivered on the House floor and remarks inserted in theCongressional Record.
This series has been microfilmed for preservation purposes and is available as Historical Manuscripts Film Number 82.
Parts One through Four of the Ogden R. Reid Papers were donated to the Yale University Library by Ogden R. Reid between 1976 and 1978.